Eukaryotic cell organelles

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  • Eukaryotic Cells (animal & plant)
    • Nucleus
      • Largest organelle
      • Surrounded by nuclear envelope - has nuclear pores
      • Contains chromatin (made of DNA and proteins) to form chromosomes
      • Has nucleolus (dense spherical structure) - makes RNA and ribosomes
    • Centrioles
      • Not in plant cells
      • For cell division
      • Small tubes of protein fibres (microtubules)
      • Form spindle fibres (move chromosomes in cell division)
    • Rough ER
      • Single flattened membrane bound sacs - cisternae
        • Cisternae are continuous with outer nuclear membrane
          • Cisternae are studded with ribosomes which make proteins
            • Transports proteins to golgi
    • Smooth ER
      • Single flattened membrane bound sacs - cisternae
      • No ribosomes
      • Makes lipids and seroids
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Stack of flattened sacs enclosed by a membrane
      • Formed by fusion of vesicles from rER
      • Receives proteins from rER and modifies them
        • Packages these proteins into vesicles
    • Lysosome
      • Involved in breakdown of unwanted substances within cell
      • Spherical sacs enclosed by a membrane
      • Contains digestive enzymes
    • Mitochondria
      • Spherical or sausage shaped
      • Double membrane with a fluid filled space between
      • Inner membrane folded in finger like projections called cristae
      • Central area contains a jelly - Matrix
      • Where aerobic respiration occurs - make ATP
    • Chroloplasts
      • Plant cells only
      • Site of photosynthesis
      • Double membrane with fluid filled in between them
      • Inner membrane is continuous with a network of flattened sacs called thylakoids
        • Stack of these thylakoids is called a granum
        • Chlorophyll molecule is present on the thylakoid membranes and intergranal membranes
    • Ribosomes
      • Tiny organelles
      • 2 subunits
      • On ER or free in cytoplasm
      • Site of protein synthesis


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