Eukaryotic Cells and Organelles

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  • Eukaryotic Cells and Organelles
    • Plasma (Cell Surface) Membrane
      • The membrane found on the surface of animal cells and just inside the cell wall of plant cells and prokaryotic cells. Mainly made up of lipids and proteins
      • Regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it, which allow it to respond to chemicals like Hormones
    • Vesicle
      • Small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane
      • Transports substances in and out of the cell (via plasma membrane) & between organelles
        • Some are formed by GA or ER, while others formed at cell surface
    • Cell Wall
      • Supports plant cells
      • A rigid structure that surrounds plant cells. It's mainly of the carbohydrate cellulose
    • Nucleus
      • Controls cell activities (controlling transcript of DNA)
        • Pores allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm
          • Nucleolus makes Ribosomes
            • Contains chromatin (which is made from DNA and proteins) and a structure called the nucleous
            • Ribosome
              • The site where proteins are made
              • A very small organelle that either floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the RER. It's made up of proteins and RNA. Is not surrounded by a membrane
      • Large, surrounded by a nuclear envelope (double membrane), which contains many pores
        • Contains chromatin (which is made from DNA and proteins) and a structure called the nucleous
        • Pores allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm
          • Nucleolus makes Ribosomes
            • Ribosome
              • The site where proteins are made
              • A very small organelle that either floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the RER. It's made up of proteins and RNA. Is not surrounded by a membrane
    • Centriole
      • Involved with the separation of chromosomes during cell division
      • Small, hollow cylinders, made of microtubles. Found in animal cells, but only some plant cells
        • Microtubles: Tiny protein cylinders
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Group of fluid-filled, membrane bound, flattened sacs
        • Vesicles are often seen at the edges of the sacs
      • Processes & packages new lipids + proteins, as well as making lysosomes
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
      • Synthesises and processes lipids
      • Similar to RER, bt with no ribosomes
    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
      • Folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes
      • A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. The surface is covered with ribosomes
      • Cilia
        • Small, hair-like structures found on the surface membrane of some animal cells
          • In cross section, they have an outer membrane and a ring of nine pairs of protein microtubles inside, with two in the middle
        • Microtubles allow Cilia to move
          • This movement is used by the cell to move substances along the surface
      • Mitochondrion
        • Usually oval-shaped. Have a double membrane - the inner one is folded to form structures called cristae
          • Inside is the matrix, which contains enzymes involved in respiration
        • Site of aerobic respiration, where ATP is produced. They're found in large numbers in cells that are very active and require a lot of energy
      • Lysosome
        • Contains digestive enzymes. These are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane
          • Can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell
        • A round membrane-bound organelle, with no clear internal structure
      • Flagellum
        • Flagella on eukaryotic cells are like Cilia but longer
          • Cilia
            • Small, hair-like structures found on the surface membrane of some animal cells
              • In cross section, they have an outer membrane and a ring of nine pairs of protein microtubles inside, with two in the middle
            • Microtubles allow Cilia to move
              • This movement is used by the cell to move substances along the surface
          • They stick out from the cell surface are surrounded by the plasma membrane
          • Inside they're like Cilia too - 2 microtubles in the center and 9 pairs around the edge
        • The Microtubles contract to make the flagella move
          • Flagella are used like outward motors to propel cells forward (e.g. when a sperm cell swims)
      • Chloroplast
        • Small, flattened structure found in plant cells. Surrounded by a double membrane, also has membranes inside called Thylakoid Membrane
          • These membranes stacked up in parts of the chloroplast to form Grana. Grana are linked together by lammae - thin, flat pieces of thylakoid membrane
        • Where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts happen in the grana, & other parts happen in the stroma
          • Stroma: Thick fluid found in chloroplasts

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