B1.1 - B1.5 Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

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  • Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
    • Eukaryotic
      • Animal
        • Nucleus
          • Plant
            • Chloroplasts
              • Chlorophyll
            • Permanent Vacuole
            • Cell Wall
            • Specialisation
              • Root Hair Cells
                • They increase surface area available for water to move into the cell.
                • They have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
                • They have many mitochondria that transfer the energy needed for the active transport of mineral ions into the root hair cells.
              • Photosynthet-ic Cells
                • They contain specialised green structures called chloroplasts containing chlorophyll that trap the light needed for photosynthesis.
                • They are usually positioned in continuous layers in the leaves and outer layers of the stem of a plant so they absorb as much light as possible.
                • They have a large perminant vacuole that helps keep the cell rigid as a result of osmosis. When lots of these rigid cells are arranged together to form photosynthetic tissue they will help support the stem. They also keep the leaf spread out so it can capture as much light as possible.
              • Xylem Cells
                • The xylem cells are alive when they are first formed but a special chemical called lignin builds up in spirals in the cell walls. They calls die and form long hollow tubes that allow water and mineral ions to move easily through them, from one end of the plant to another.
                • The spirals and rings of lignin in the xylem cells makes them very strong and help them withstand pressure of water moving up the plant. They also help support the plant stem.
              • Phloem Cells
                • The cell walls between the cells break down to form special sieve plates. These allow water carrying dissolved food to move freely up and down the tubes to where it is needed.
                • Phloem cells lose a lot of their internal structures but they are supported by companion cells that help to keep them alive. The mitochondria of the companion cells transfer the energy needed to move dissolved food up and down the plant in phloem.
        • Cell Membrane
          • Plant
            • Chloroplasts
              • Chlorophyll
            • Permanent Vacuole
            • Cell Wall
            • Specialisation
              • Root Hair Cells
                • They increase surface area available for water to move into the cell.
                • They have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
                • They have many mitochondria that transfer the energy needed for the active transport of mineral ions into the root hair cells.
              • Photosynthet-ic Cells
                • They contain specialised green structures called chloroplasts containing chlorophyll that trap the light needed for photosynthesis.
                • They are usually positioned in continuous layers in the leaves and outer layers of the stem of a plant so they absorb as much light as possible.
                • They have a large perminant vacuole that helps keep the cell rigid as a result of osmosis. When lots of these rigid cells are arranged together to form photosynthetic tissue they will help support the stem. They also keep the leaf spread out so it can capture as much light as possible.
              • Xylem Cells
                • The xylem cells are alive when they are first formed but a special chemical called lignin builds up in spirals in the cell walls. They calls die and form long hollow tubes that allow water and mineral ions to move easily through them, from one end of the plant to another.
                • The spirals and rings of lignin in the xylem cells makes them very strong and help them withstand pressure of water moving up the plant. They also help support the plant stem.
              • Phloem Cells
                • The cell walls between the cells break down to form special sieve plates. These allow water carrying dissolved food to move freely up and down the tubes to where it is needed.
                • Phloem cells lose a lot of their internal structures but they are supported by companion cells that help to keep them alive. The mitochondria of the companion cells transfer the energy needed to move dissolved food up and down the plant in phloem.
        • Cytoplasm
          • Mitochondria
            • Ribosomes
              • Specialisation
                • Nerve Cells
                  • Lots of dendrites to make connections to other nerve cells.
                  • An axon that carries the nerve impulses from one place to another.
                  • The nerve endings or synapses are adapted to pass the impulses to another cell or between a nerve cell or between a nerve cell and a muscle in the body using special transmitter chemicals.
                • Muscles Cells
                  • They contain special proteins that slide over each other making the fibres contract.
                  • They contain many mitochondria to transfer the energy needed for the chemical reactions that take place as the cells contract and relax.
                  • They can store glyclogen, a chemical that can be broken down and used in cellular respiration by the mitochondria to transfer the energy needed for the fibres to contract.
                • Sperm Cells
                  • A long tail whips from side to side to help move the sperm through water or the female reproductive system.
                  • The middle section is full of mitochondria, which transfer the energy needed for the tail to worl.
                  • The acrosome stores digestive enzymes for breaking down the outer layer of the egg.
                  • A large nucleus contains the genetic information to be passed on.
          • Procaryotic
            • Bacteria
              • Contains extra small rings of DNA called plasmids.

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