cell strucutre- eukaryotic cell structure and function

  • Created by: gsemma
  • Created on: 11-01-19 11:25
View mindmap
  • Eukaryotes, prokaryotes and virus
    • eukaryotic
      • has a nucleus containing DNA surrounded by a nuclear envelope.
      • RNA containing nucleolus within nucleus
      • a cytoplasm that contains the organelles and the cytoskeleton.
      • a plasma membrane or surface membrane
      • membrane bound organelle
      • ribosomes and small vesicles.
      • animal cells are also eukaryotic but also contain a cell wall, vacuoles and chloroplasts.
    • prokaryotes
      • include al bacteria's.
      • similarities to eukaryotes- plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA and RNA
      • differences- smaller, free floating circular DNA (nucleoid), less well developed cytoskeleton, smaller ribosomes.
      • some have, protective waxy cuticles, plasmids, flagella and pilli.
    • virus
      • acelluar and non-living and smaller than bacteria.
      • cannot multiply without a host cell
      • nucleic acids and proteins contained in capsule.
      • capsid has attachment proteins for entering host cells.
    • nucleus
      • largest organelle- double membrane with pores
        • houses genetic material- chromatin that consists of DNA and proteins and instructions for protein synthesis,
    • nucleolus
      • dense spherical structure inside nucleus.
        • makes RNA and ribosomes which pass into cytoplasm and are site of protein assembly.
    • nuclear envelope
      • surrounds nucleus- 2 membranes with fluid in them- nuclear pores
        • pores allow passage of relatively large molecules e.g. hormones and mRNA
    • Rough endoplasmic recticulum (RER)
      • flattened membrane sacs called cisternae filled- coated in ribosomes.
        • modifies and transports proteins made on ribosomes. some are secreted from cell some re placed on plasma membrane.
    • Smooth ER
      • flattered cisternae- no ribosomes.
        • lipid production and absorption
    • Golgi apparatus
      • stack of membrane bound flattened as- vesicles can often be seen around the edges
        • modifies and packages proteins form the ER and are secreted.
    • mitochondria
      • enveloped in 2 membranes - inner is very folded forimg the cristae and filed with liquid matrix containing DNA, proteins, lipids, ribosomes and proteins.
        • site of ATP production
    • lysosomes
      • single membrane - spherical sacs.
        • engulfs and digests foreign and dead/old cell material.
    • chloroplasts
      • plant cells, double membrane, separated by fluid stroma- site of photosynthesis- thylakoid stacks (one stack is called grana)- chlorophyll molecules on thylakoid and lamellae
        • site of photosynthesis driven by light.
    • vacuole
      • fluid filled sacs- membrane called tonolpast
        • permanent ones only in plants- contains water and solutes that regulate cells
    • ribosomes
      • Untitled
  • flattened membrane sacs called cisternae filled- coated in ribosomes.
    • modifies and transports proteins made on ribosomes. some are secreted from cell some re placed on plasma membrane.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes and structure resources »