Ethnicity, crime and justice 1

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  • Ethnicity, crime and justice 1
    • Ethnicity and criminalisaton
      • Three main sources of statistics on ethnicity and criminalisation.
      • 1. Official Statistics - blacks are seven times more likely than whites to be stopped and searched; five times more likely to be in prison.
      • Victim surveys and case studies throw a more direct light on ethnicity and offending.
      • 2. Victim surveys - ask respondents to identify the ethnicity of the person who committed the crime e.g. black people are significantly more likely to be identified as offenders.
      • 3. Self-report studies - Graham & Bowling - used self report studies and found blacks and whites has almost identical rates of offending, whilst Asians had much lower rates.
      • Evidence is inconsistent as official statistics and victim surveys show higher offending for blacks, but self -reports don't.
    • Ethnicity, racism and CJS
      • Policing - Phillips & Bowling - many allegations of oppressive policing of minority communities such as mass stop and search and failure of police to respond to racist violence.
      • Minorities are more likely to feel they are 'over-policed and under protected'.
      • Stop and search - black people are 7x more likely to be stoped, Asians 3x under the Terrorism Act 2000.
      • Explaining patterns in S+S
        • Ethnic differences - low discretion where police act on relvant information about specific offence. - high discretion is wihtout specific information and are likely to discriminate.
        • Police racism - Macpherson Report showed that the racist murder of Stephen Lawrence concluded the fact that there was constitutional racism within Metropolitan Police.
        • Demographic Factors - groups most at risk of stop and search are young, unemployed, manual workers and urban dwellers.
      • Arrests and cautions - black people is over 3x than whites. Once arrested, blacks and Asians are less likely than whites to receive a caution.
      • Prosecution - CPS responsible for deciding whether a case is brought by police should be prosecuted by court.
      • Trial - Ethnic minority cases more likely to be allocated for a jury in crown court than magistrates due to the mistrust of magistrates impartiality.
      • Convictions - blacks and Asians are less to be found guilty, e.g. 2006/7 60% white defendants were found guilty, and only 52% blacks and 44% Asians.
      • Sentencing - Hood - found that even when seriousness of the offence and previous conviction are taken into account, black men where 5% more likely to be jailed.
      • Prison - 2007 1/4 of male population were ethnic minorities - 15% black 7% Asians. Blacks are 5x more likely to be in prison than whites.

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