Ethnicity and Crime

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  • Ethnicity and Crime
    • Theorizing race and criminality
      • Left Realist
        • Lea and Young
          • Accept that there are racist practices by the police but higher crime does correlate with young African-Caribbean males
            • This is because they are marginalized by society
              • They create culture/subcultures of resistance, these factors are exacerbated by anti-colonial struggles that are ingrained into social memory
              • Due to ghettos and level of deprivation
      • Marxist: Cultures of Resistance
        • Scraton
        • Blacks are in a worse socioeconomic position than whites due to racism
        • They create cultures of resistance in respose to the depreivation
          • It creates a sense of belonging within a society that refuses to accept you
          • Some have critisized Scraton of "romanticising" crime and criminals
      • Marxist: Capitalism in Crisis
        • Hall et al
          • When capitalism is in crisis (such as the unrest in Northern Ireland) the authorities have to toughen up
            • So the bourgise choose an already marginalized group and use them as a "scapegoat" - someone to blame and hate
              • the purpose is distract society from the dominating class
          • Criticisms: Does not look at the motives of Black youths
      • Postmodernist: Fitzgerald et al
        • More deprivation = more crime
        • Black youths are the highest offending group in Britain
        • A link between lone-parent households
          • Similarly alienation from school and a fatalistic approach to life meant anti-establishment subcultures are created (gangs)
    • Police and ethnic minority groups
      • Skolnick
        • Canteen culture
          • Refers to the conservative, working class values that the police hold
            • Masculinity is also a major part, meaning police want to be accepted by each other
          • Personal biases hinders professional police work, they target black people because of their own values
            • They stereotype black people
      • Mcpherson Inquiry 1997
        • After the Steven Laurence case the police were labelled as insitutionally racist
          • The police themselves are not racist but their training and teachings have meant how they work is biased against black youths, who are targeted more
    • Offical statistics
      • Black people are three times more likely to be arrested over white

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