Ethnicity and Achievement

  • Created by: KCharlish
  • Created on: 20-05-15 15:00
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  • Ethnicity and Achievement
    • Evidence
      • Dfes (2007) in 2006 only 24% of white boys on free school meals gained 5A* - C grades at GCSE.
      • Steven Hastings (2006) white pupils make less progress between 11-16 than black or Asian pupils
    • External Factors
      • Material Deprivation
        • 15% of ethnic minority households live in overcrowded conditions compared with only 2% of white households
        • Unemployment is 3x higher for African and Black/Pakistanis than whites
        • Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are 3x more likely than whites to be in the poorest fifth of the popuulation/
      • Cultural Deprivation
        • Intellectual and linguistic skills
          • Glillborn and Mirza (2000) Indian pupils do well despite not having English as home language
          • Gordon Bowker (1968) identifies the lack of standard English as a barrier to progress in education
          • Bereither and Engelman; consider the language spoken by low income black americans as inadequate for success. Their language is ungrammatical, disjointed and incapable of expressing abstract ideas.
          • Many children from black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences.
        • Family structure and parental support
          • MORI (2004) 80% of ethnic minority groups wanted to go to university compared to only 68% of whites
          • Lupton; found that white parents had lower levels of support and a negative attitude towards education. Ethnic minority parents were more likely to see education as a way up in society.
          • Moynihan (1965) black families are more likely to be  headed by lone mother so parents are deprived of adequate care and a lack of a male role model. Sees cultural deprivation as a cycle where inadequately socialised children go on to fail at school and become inadequate parents themselves.
          • Driver and Ballard (1981) Asian families have a more positive attitude towards education and also have higher aspirations for their children. They are also more supportive.
    • In
    • Internal Factors
      • Pupil Responses and Subcultures
        • Fuller (1984) black girls in low streams rejected negative labels. They worked continuously but gave the appearance of not doing so. They had positive attitudes towards education.
        • Sewell (1998) identifies 4 ways in which the black boys he studied responded to stereotyping.
          • The rebels - rejected the goals and rules of the school
          • The conformists - keen to succeed and accepted the goals. They also had friends from other ethnic groups.
          • The retreatists - disconnected from school and black subculture
          • The innovators - pro education but anti school
        • Mirza (1992) studied ambitious black girls who faced teacher racism. Their failed strategies for avoiding racism led to their underachievement.
      • Ethnocentric Curriculum
        • Troyna and Williams; curriculum is ethnocentric as it gives priority to white culture and the English language
        • Coard (1971; 2005) image of black people as inferior in history undermines black pupils and leads to their failure
        • Ball (1994) criticises the national curriculum for ignoring cultural and ethnic diversity and promoting the attitude of 'Little Englandism'
      • Selection and Segregation
        • The Commision for Racial Equality (1993) Ethnic minority pupils end up in unpopular schools.
        • Gilbourn; marketisation gives schools the chance to select pupils. Ethnic minority children are at an advantage due to negative stereotypes.
      • Labelling and teacher racism
        • Asian Pupils
          • Asian pupils felt isolated when teachers expressed disapproval of their customs and mispronounced their names, they therefore felt marginalised and didn't participate fully.
          • Celine Wright (1992) teachers held ethnocentric views that standard english and british culture were superior.
        • Black Pupils
          • Peter Foster (1990) stereotypes could result in black pupils being placed in lower sets than other pupils of similar ability, leading to lower levels of achievement.
          • Gilborn and Youdell (2000) conflict between white teachers and black pupils stems from radical stereotypes people hold rather than the actual behaviour.


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