Ethnicity and educational achievement : Explanation 

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  • Ethnicity: Explanation
    • Internal
      • Hidden curriculum Tends to fit mainstream, white, middle class culture (uniform and lesson time)
      • School curriculum  -Ethnocentric curriculum: Favours British knowledge and traditions over alternative cultures. Holidays fit with the cultures. history and languages etc...
      • Teacher/pupil interactions despite the existence of equal opportunity policies in school, teachers often hold stereotypes
      • Racism
        • Institutional racism Where schools and colleges routinely discriminate against ethnic minorities. (Hatcher 1996) 'school governing bodies gave low priority to race issue and failed to deal with pupils' racist behaviour' there was no formal channels of communication between school governors and ethnic minority parents
        • Teacher racism (Gillborn) ' sometimes teachers negatively label black students. Afro-caribbean students  (self-fulfilling prophecy of failure) were seen as a challenge to authorities. They were more likely to be excluded from school. Teachers had much higher expectations of asians.
      • Subcultures boys from same ethnic  backgrounds may form groups within school. These stereotypes can lead to the labelling of pupils and affect set/streams
        • Cecile Wright 'some teacher hole ethnic-based stereotypes more positive for asians and negative fore black Caribbeans
    • External
      • Language For many children English is not their first language, this places them at a disadvantage lack of English makes if hard to follow the process in applying for school places so its hard to ensure the child attends the best school possible
      • Cultural deprivation Close-knit extended families and high parental expectations increase levels of achievement in asian communities
        • Lupton (2004) 'teachers reported poorest behaviour in white working class schools linked to the lower level of parental support and negative attitudes towards education
      • Parental support All these factors link in with this as it makes it more difficult for parents to support their children
      • Material deprivation Socio-economic status was a factor in the lower levels of achievement from afro-caribbean pupils.
        • Pakistani, Bangladeshi and afro-caribbean groups are more likely to have parents working in lower level occupations. This may result in unemployment,poverty and material deprivation
        • Chinese and Indian groups were more likely to come from higher class positions

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