Ethnic inequalities (in work, education and health)

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  • Ethnicity and inequality
    • Employment
      • White men are the most likely to be employed (91% in FT employment), with Bangladeshi men least likely (61% in FT employment)
      • Unemployment rate of black graduates is 24%, worse than any other group of graduates
      • Yi Cheung: Ethnic penalty - ethnic minorities face difficulties in the labour market compared to their white counterparts of same age and human capital
        • Mason: members of some ethnic groups are severely disadvantaged in the labour market which could be due to employers attitudes
      • Bhopal: women from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds are sometimes limited by cultural constraints - they often worked at home due to their husbands' preferences or need to care for children
    • Education
      • Black students are around 4x more likely to be excluded or labelled as troublesome and loud
      • Institutional racism leading to disadvantage - institutions such as schools give negative treatment to a group of people based on their race
      • Strand: teachers less likely to enter Afro-Caribbean students for higher-tier tests at 14 in science and maths, had a knock-on effect on GCSEs
      • Teachers develop perceptions of their students, more likely to perceive Afro-Caribbean students as disruptive
      • Wright: teacher racism - teachers believed Asian students would have a poor grasp of English and left them out of discussions
      • Pakistani and black students do the worst in the education system
    • Health
      • The risk of poor health and higher mortality is greater in most minority ethnic communities than in the white majority
      • Some minority groups are biologically predisposed to some illnesses e.g diabetes - hispanic/latino americans and afro-americans more likely to get diabetes
      • Africans and Afro-Caribbeans have an increased incidence of high blood pressure and strokes
      • African-Caribbeans more likely to be compulsorily sectioned. Could be due to institutional racism


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