Ethnicity and Education

View mindmap
  • Ethnicity and education
    • ethnic differences in education
      • black and Pakistani pupils do worst
      • white pupils are very close to the national average
    • external factors
      • cultural deprivation
        • intellectual and language skills
          • children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation. They fail to develop reasoning and problem solving skills.
          • Bereiter and Englemann claim that the language or poorer black American families is ungrammatical and disjointed. Their children can't express abstract ideas
      • white working-class pupils
        • Lupton studied 4 WC schools with different ethnicites. teachers reported white WC having poorer levels of behaviour
          • linked this to lower levels of parental support and the negative attitudes of white working class parents towards education.
      • material deprivation and class
        • half of ethnic minority children live in low-income households
        • ethnic minorities are almost twice as likely to be unemployed
      • attitudes, values and family structure
        • most children socialised into mainstream culture which instils competitiveness and a desire to achieve, equipping them for success.
        • fatalism and immediate gratification results in lack of motivation to succeed
        • lack of male role models. Murray argues high rate of lone parenthood and a lack of positive male role models lead to under achievement
        • Sewell argues Chinese and Indian pupils benefit from supportive families with an 'asian work ethic'
        • Fathers, gangs and culture. Sewell.
    • compensatory education - policies that aim to counter the effects of cultural deprivation
      • operation head start - USA - attempt to compensate children for the cultural deficit they are said to suffer because of deprived backgrounds
      • Sure start - UK - development of pre-school children in deprived areas
    • internal factors
      • labelling
        • Gillborn and Mirza found that in one area, black children were the highest achievers entering primary school yet by GCSEs they had fallen below average. Suggests schooling is the problem.
        • black pupils more likely to be punished for the same behaviour
        • Gillborn and Youdell - teachers have radicalised expectations about black pupils
        • G&Y conclude that conflict between white teachers and black pupils stems from racism rather than pupils behaviour
      • Sewell - pupil subcultures
        • conformist
        • retreatist
        • rebels
        • innovators
      • institutional racism
        • individual vs institutional racism
        • the ethnocentric curriculum
          • Troyna and Williams - curriculum gives priority to white culture and the English language
          • David  - National curriculum is 'specifically British'
          • this can result in minority ethnic pupils feeling that they & their culture are not valued in education. This diminishes their self-esteem, which has a negative impact on their education


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »