Sociology- Cultural deprivation and ethnicity

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  • Created on: 16-01-19 16:17
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  • Ethnicity and cultural deprivation
    • Intellectual and linguistic skills
      • Argue that children from low income back families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences
        • This leaves them poorly equipped for school as they have not been able to develop reasoning and problem solving skills
      • Beretier and Engleman consider the language spoken by low income american families as inadequate as it is ungrammatical, disjointed and incapable of expressing abstract ideas
      • Also concerns for children who do not speak English at home may be held back educationally.
        • However, official statistics prove that this is not a major factor as Gillborne and Mirza 2000 argue Chinese and Indian pupils do well even though they may not speak english at home
    • Attitudes and values
      • Lack of motivation as a major cause of underachievement among many black children
      • Most children socialised into mainstream culture which instills a sense of ambition, competitiveness and willingness to make sacrifices for long term goals
      • CD theorists argue that some black children are socialised into a subculture that instils a fatalistic, live for today attitude that does not value education.
    • Family structure and parental support
      • CD theorists argue that inadequate socialisation is due to a dysfunctional family structure
      • Moynihan 1965 ares that because many black families are headed by a lone mother,  they are deprived of adequate care as she struggles financially
        • Also argues that the absense of a father means they don't have a positive role model of male achievement
      • Murray 1984 argues the high rate of lone parenthood and lack of positive role model lead to underachievement of some minorities.
      • Scruton 1986 argues that the low achievement of some ethnic groups  is because they fail to embrace mainstream British culture
      • Pryce argues that the family structure also contributes to the underachievement of Black Caribbean pupils in Britain. Argues Black Caribbeans are less resistant to racism compared to asian pupils and so underachieve
    • Sewell; Fathers and Gangs
      • Sewell 2009 argues that it is not the absence of fathers but instead a lack of fatherly nurturing, meaning black boys struggle to overcome emotional difficulties
      • Arnot 2004 describes the role models presented to boys as 'the ultra tough ghetto superstar'
      • Sewell also argues that black students do worse than Asian pupils because of cultural differences in education as Black children are 'nurtured by MTV'
      • Gillborn 2008 argues that it is not peer pressure but institutional racism that produces the failure of black boys
    • Asian families
      • Sewell argues that Indian and Chinese pupils benefit from supportive families that have an 'Asian work ethic'
      • Lupton 2004 - argues that the adult authority in Asian families to similar to the model that operates in school
    • White working class families
      • McCulloch 2012 found that ethnic minorities pupils were more likely to go to uni than White British Pupils
      • Lupton studied 4 mainly wc schools and two were white, one pakistani and one ethnically mixed
        • Found teacher reported poorer levels of behaviour in white wc schools- despite having less pupils on free school meals.
        • Teachers blamed this on the lack of parental support.
    • Criticisms
      • Driver 1977 criticises it for ignoring the negative effects of ethnicity on achievement . He argues that Black Caribbean family provides girls with positive role models of strong independent women
      • Lawrence 1982 Challenges Pryces view that black pupils fail because of their weak culture, but because of racism
      • Keedie- victim blaming explanation and argues ethnic minority children are culturally different, not culturally deprived.
      • Critics argue compensatory education is imposing the dominant white culture on children who already have a coherent culture
        • Alternatives- Multicultural education- a policy that recognises and values minority culture and includes them in the curriculum.       Anti racist education- A policy that challenges the prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider society

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