Ethnicity and Achievement

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  • Created on: 23-02-19 20:12
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  • Ethnicity and Achievement
    • Internal Factors
      • 1. LABELLING AND TEACHER RACISM
        • Interactionists found that teachers often see black and asian students as far from the 'ideal pupil.' For example, black pupils were often seen as disruptive and asians as passive
        • Gillborn and Youdell found  that some teachers had 'racialised expectations' pupils - they found that they often expected black pupils to present more discipline problems and were more likely to stream them in lower sets where they would be ignored and alienated. in turn, they felt teachers underestimated their ability and picked on them
        • Wright studied a multi ethnic primary school and found that Asian pupils can also be the victim to teacher labelling. Teachers had ethnocentric views. Teachers assumed they had poor grasp of English and left them out of discussions and used simplistic language, they assumed they could be ignored as they weren't a threat, as a result, they were marginalised,they felt isolated when teacher disapproved their customs and mispronounced their names
        • Different pupil responses to teacher labelling:-
          • 1. FULLER AND MAC AN GHAILL:- Rejecting Negative Labels and Succeeding
            • Fuller studied a group of black girls in a London Comprehensive who achieved highly- they didn't conform to all the values of the school but they did value educational success so they hung out with people from lower sets therefore they didn't get bullied but hey did a lot of independent work at home- they channelled their anger about being labelled into educational success, they made it seem as if they didn't care about schoolwork
          • 2. MIRZA:- Failed strategies for avoiding racism = found that teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious when discussing careers
            • she found 3 types of racism:-
              • COLOUR BLIND = Teachers who believe all pupils are equal but allow racism to go unchallengedIf they believe all pupils have equal ability they wouldn't help those who struggle
              • LIBERAL CHAUVINISTS = Teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived so have low expectations of them
              • OVERT RACISTS = Teachers who believe blacks are inferior and actively discriminate against them
            • Their strategies for avoiding racism were:- being selective about which staff to ask for help, getting on with their work in lessons without taking part, not choosing certain options in order to avoid racist teachers. This had a negative effect on their education as it restricted their opportunities
          • 3. SEWELL :- The variety of boys' responses
            • Methods :-  studied a boys' comprehensive with African Caribbean students. Conducted semi-structured interviews with teachers and students individually and in groups. Carried out daily observations in playground and common rooms
            • Finding :- Teachers hold a stereotype of "Black Machismo" seeing black pupils as rebellious and anti-authority
            • 4 responses to teacher racism:-
              • 1. THE REBELS = They rejected the values of the school and opposed it by joining peer groups. These reinforced the negative stereotypes of "Black Machismo" and "Ghetto street culture"
              • 2. THE INNOVATORS = They were pro-education but anti-school. They distanced themselves from conformists enough to keep credibility with the rebels whilst valuing educational success
              • 3. THE CONFORMISTS = Pupils who accepted the school and eager to succeed
              • 4. THE  RETREATISTS = isolated and disconnected with peer group subcultures and the school whilst keeping a low profile
      • 2. PUPIL IDENTITIES
        • Archer = teachers have a dominant discourse (way of seeing something) which constructs 3 types of pupils :-
          • THE IDEAL PUPIL = a white, middle class boy with a masculinised identity and a 'normal' sexuality
          • THE PATHOLOGISED PUPIL = a conformist and culture bound overachiever who succeeds through hard work rather than natural ability. An Asian-'deserving poor', feminised identity with an asexual identity
          • THE DEMONISED PUPIL = a black or white, working class   hyper-sexualised identity. Unintelligent, peer led, culturally deprived, underachiever
        • Archer and Francis = teachers have a 'positive negative' stereotype - Chinese pupils achieved success in the 'wrong way' through hardworking, passive conformism rather than natural ability. they would never be an 'ideal pupil'
      • 3. INSTITUTIONAL RACISM
        • Troyna and Williams = Critical Race Theory = racism is ingrained in society. its not just intentional acts but the ones ingrained in practise. They focus on how schools and colleges unconsciously discriminate against ethnic minority groups
        • Roithymar = racism is "locked in equality" - historical discrimination is so large that you don't need to consciously discriminate, the inequality becomes self-perpetuating.Gilborn = its so deep rooted that that its inevitable
        • MARKETISATION AND SEGREGATION =  this has led to more ability to select pupils. selection has led to ethnic segregation . Commission for Racial Equality found that ethnic minorities were more likely to end up in unpopular schools, they found racial bias in interviews and lack of information in minority languages
        • ETHNOCENTRIC CURRICULUM = an attitude or policy that gives priority to the culture and viewpoint of one ethnic group (dominant culture) and disregarding others. It boils racial bias into the everyday workings of a school. COARD = leads to underachievement in History if an ethnic minority group is seen as primitive and undermines children's self esteem
        • ASSESMENT= GILBORN  The assessment game is rigged. If black pupils achieve the rules will be 'reenginered' so they fail. For example, primary schools used house baseline assessments which tested children when they first came to school, which involved written tests but this was replaced with Foundation stage Profiling which is based entirely on teachers judegments
    • External Factors
      • 1. RACISM IN WIDER SOCIETY
        • Individual Racism = "A racist is someone who believes that some individuals are superior or inferior to others on the basis of racialised difference (GIDDENS)
        • CULTURAL RACISM = emphasises national culture and patriotism and excludes on the basis of cultural difference
        • REX = racial discrimination leads to social exclusion which worsens poverty faced by ethnic minorities. In housing, discrimination means they are forced into substandard accommodation than white people of the same class
        • WOOD =  sent 3 closely matched job applicants to job vacancies. These came from fictious applicants using common names from different ethnic groups. For each job, one application used a 'white' name and 2 used an 'ethnic minority' name. 1 in 16 ethnic minority names were given an interview against 1 in 9 white names
      • 2. CULTURAL DEPRIVATION
        • Lack of intellectual and linguistic skills
        • ATTIDUES AND VALUES
          • PRYCE argues that Asians are high achievers because their culture is more resistant to racism and gives them a sense of self-worth whereas Black Caribbean culture is less resistant due to experience of slavery destroying language, religion and family structures
          • black children are socialised into a subculture that instils a 'live for today' attitude that doesn't value education
        • FAMILY STRUCTURE AND PARENTAL SUPPORT
          • Moynihan said that many black families are headed by a lone mother.      Murray agreed and said that a high rate of lone parenthood and lack of a positive male role model leads to the underachievement of some minorities as usually mothers work and don't have time to supervise to teach children
          • SEWELL = a lack of male role models and a lack of 'tough love' makes it difficult for black boys to overcome emotional and behavioural difficulties. therefore they turn to gangs which provide loyalty, love and role models of anti-school, black masculinity - "ghetto superstars"
          • LUPTON = carried out a study on 4 working class schools and found that behaviour was worse in the working class white school than the ethnically mixed school due to a lack parental support from white working class parents
          • McCulloch found that ethnic minority pupils are more likely to aspire o go to university than white British pupils due to parental support as ethnic minority parents were more likely to see education as a way up in society
      • MARERIAL DEPRIVATION
        • FLAHERTY = 15% of ethnic minority households live in overcrowded conditions compared to 2% of white households
        • PALMER = Half of ethnic minority children live in low income households compared to one quarter of white children - Ethnic minorities are twice as likely to be unemployed - Half of Bangladeshi and Pakistani  workers earned under £7 per hour compared to only a quarter of white British workers
      • Criticisms of the cultural deprivation theory :-
        • DRIVER = it ignores the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement.Black Caribbean families provide girls with positive role models of strong independent women. This is why Black girls are more successful in education than boys
        • LAWRENCE = black pupils underachieve because of racism, not low self esteem
        • KEDDIE = its a victim blaming explanation. Ethnic children are culturally different, not culturally deprived. They underachieve because schools are ethnocentric (biased of white cultures)
    • Compensatory Education = policies designed t to tackle the 'problem' of cultural deprivation.
      • It has been criticised for trying to impose a dominant white culture on children who already have a culture of their own
        • Alternatives to compensatory education :-
          • Multi  Cultural Education = a policy that recognises and values minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum
          • Anti-Racist Education = a policy that challenges prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider society
      • Alternatives to compensatory education :-
        • Multi  Cultural Education = a policy that recognises and values minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum
        • Anti-Racist Education = a policy that challenges prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider society
    • It has been criticised for trying to impose a dominant white culture on children who already have a culture of their own

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