FACTORS AFFECTING ACHIEVEMENT IN TERMS OF ETHNICITY INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL

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  • ETHNICITY
    • FACTS
      • Chinese, Indian and Bangladeshi kids above average
      • Whites and Asians do better than blacks
      • Girls and middle class do better in all ethnic groups
      • WC white pupils perform at lower levels than EM
      • EM are over represented in lower streams
    • EXTERNAL FACTORS
      • CULTURAL DEP
        • INTELLECTUAL AND LINGUISTIC SKILLS
          • Bereiter and Engelmann - language spoken by poor black families is deficient and inadequate for success
            • Gillborn and Mirza argue it is not a major factor as Indian kids do well even when English is not first language
        • ATTITUDES AND VALUES
          • there is a lack of motivation for black children which leads to educational failure- fatalistic attitude
        • FAMILY STRUCTURE AND PARENTAL SUPPORT
          • Moynihan - black families headed by lone women, lack of breadwinner = financial struggle and inadequate care. Also a lack of male role model of achievement
          • Scruton - ethnic minorities fail to embrace British culture so they fail
          • Pryce- Asians are high achievers because they are more resistant to racis and have higher self worth whereas black Caribbeans are low achievers because colonialism was culturally devastating= low self esteem and underachievement
          • WHITE BRITISH WC
            • Evans - street culture is played out in school =disruption
            • Lupton - WC white families have negative attitudes towards school = low aspirations
            • McCulloch - ethnic pupils more likely to aspire to uni
          • ASIAN, PAKISTANI,BANGLADESHI AND INDIAN
            • Lupton - adult authority in Asian families is similar to that inschool
              • Driver and Ballard - Asian families have a pro school attitude and offer big support network for children
            • Pryce - Asian culture not destroyed by colonial rule
          • CHINESE
            • Archer and Francis - most successful because parents place a very high value on education; hierarchy is not questioned and they believe they can succeed through hard work
          • BLACK CARRIBEAN
            • Sewell - lack of fatherly nurturing results in blackboys finding it hard to overcome emotional difficulties. street gangs attractive because they offer pervasive love and loyalty. Role model of anti school black masculinity
            • Ferguson - black boys felt they needed to shed distinguishing features of their blackness and replace it with whiteness in order to achieve cultural capital to succeed - this is the fault of the school not cultural dep
        • CRITICISMS OF CULTURAL DEPRIVATION THEORY
          • Driver - it ignores positive aspects of ethnicity e.g. black girls do better because of strong female role model
          • Lawrence - criticises Pryce, blacks fail because of racism not low self esteem
          • Keddie - myth of cultural dep, they fail because of ethnocentric curriculum
          • These critics oppose compensatory ed because it imposes dominant white culture
            • Alternatives
              • Multicultural education
              • Anti-racist education
      • MATERIAL DEPRIVATION AND CLASS
        • Palmer - ethnic minorities more likely to be unemployed/ homeless, half of EM live in low income houses compared to 1/4 white kids
        • Many ethnic minorities live in economically depressed ares with high unemployment and low wages
        • Cultural factors such as Purdah prevent Muslim women from working
        • There could be a lack of language skills and foreign qualifications may not be recognised
        • These inequalities are reflected in the proportion of children on FSM
          • Material dep argues class differences explain why Pakistani kids do worse than whites and Indians: Indian families tend to be better off
            • Class needs to be taken into account with ethnicity because we may overestimate the effects of cultural deprivation
              • BUT Indian and Chinese pupils who are materially deprived still do better than most
                • Modood - effects of low income are much less on ethnic minority children
      • RACISM IN WIDER SOCIETY
        • Rex - racism leads to social exclusion and worsens poverty faced by EM e.g. EM are put into substandard housing
        • Wood- 1/16 'ethnic job applications' got interviews compared to 1/9 'white' applications
        • This helps to explain why EM are more likely to face unemplyment and low pay, having negative effects on their child's educational achievement
    • INTERNAL FACTORS
      • LABELLING AND TEACHER RACISM
        • BLACK PUILS AND DISCIPLINE
          • Gillborn and Youdell- schools are racist institutions and have racialised expectations:expecting black pupils to display behaviour problems. Conflict arises from racism not pupil behaviour
          • Osler - black pupils excluded more and suffer from internal/unofficial exclusions, excluding them from mainstream curriculum
          • This links to educational triage - No Hopers
            • Foster - this leads them to be put in lower sets based on negative stereotypes leading to SFP
        • ASIAN PUPILS
          • Wright - teachers expect Asian pupils to have poor English and left them out of discussions or used childish language
            • They then feel isolated, they aren't seen as a threat and so get ignored and are marginalised and prevented from participating
        • Danger of seeing these stereotypes as simply the produce of individual teachers' prejudices rather than racism in the education system as a whole
        • Danger of assuming that once labelled, pupils automatically fall victim to self -fulfilling prophecy and fail
      • PUPIL IDENTITIES
        • Archer - Idealised Pupil Identity (white MC masc identity with normalised sexuality achieving through hard work)
          • The Pathologised Identity (Asian deserving poor feminised identity either asexual or oppressed sexuality. Conformist culture bound overachiever )
          • The Demonised Identity (black/white, WC hyper sexualised, unintelligent, peer-led, culturally deprived underachiever)
        • Shain - when Asian girls try to challenge the stereotype of being quiet/passive by misbehaving they are dealt with more severely than other pupils
        • Chinese pupils are minority students who succeed but are still seen as abnormal e.g. Chinese girls are too repressed and the boys are effeminate. Their achievement is seen an improper
      • PUPIL RESPONSES AND SUBCULTURES
        • REJECTING NEGATIVE LABELS
          • Fuller - black girls(high achievers) channelled their anger into pursuit of educational success working hard but showing deliberate lack of concern for school routines
          • Mac an Ghaill - black and Asian students didn't accept negative labels so doesn't always lead to SFP
        • FAILED STRATEGIES FOR AVOIDING RACISM
          • Mirza - black pupils discouraged from ambitious careers from teacher racism
            • The colour blind: believe all pupils are equal but don't challenge racism in practice
            • The liberal chauvinists: believe black pupils are culturally deprived - low expectations
            • The overt racists: believe black children are inferior and they actively discriminate
            • Pupils were selective about which teachers to ask for help and didn't join in lessons which is a poor strategy as the girls fell behind in work and limited their options for success
        • THE VARIETY OF BOYS' RESPONSES
          • Sewell - The Rebels:small but influential. Rejected goals and rules of school. Anti school black 'macho' lads. Black masculinity = sexual experience. White boys = effeminate.
          • The conformists: large group. keen to succeed, accepted school's goals. Had friends from different ethnic groups. Anxious of beinbg stereotyped
          • The retreatists: tiny minority of isolated individuals disconnected from school and black subcultures. Despised by rebels
          • The innovators: pro education but anti school (like Fuller's girls) and thy were friendly with all groups
      • CRITICAL RACE THEORY
        • society is so racist that a racist educational system is simply the result of historical discrimination
        • Roithmayr - institutional racism is a 'locked in inequality', the scale of discrimination is so large it becomes unintentional and self perpetuating
      • MARKETISATION AND SEGREGATION
        • Gillborn - marketisation of schools mean they have to be more selective or pupils and negative stereotypes influence decisions
        • Moore and Davenport - admission procedures favour white pupils e.g. screening out language problems - this creates an ethnically stratified ed system
        • EM end up in worse schools because: primary school reports stereotype EM; lack of admission forms in minority languages; racism bias in enrolment; EM parents unaware of admission procedures
        • CRITICISMS OF GILLBORN
          • Model minorities: if Indian and Chinese pupils do so well how can institutional racism be the issue?
            • Gillborn says this conceals the fact that schools are institutionally racist by: making the system appear meritocratic; it justifies the failure of 'unaaspirational' EM; ignores the fact model minorities experience racism e.g. pathologising
        • ETHNICITY, CLASS AND GENDER
          • Evans - to fully understand underachievement ethnicity class and gender need to be looked at
          • Connolly - teachers saw black boys as disruptive under-achievers and punished them more- they got status through sport. Teachers saw Asian boys as passive, keen, academic, feminine and vulnerable
      • ASSESSMENT
        • Gillborn - the assessment game is rigged to sauch an extent that if black children collectively succeed despite the odds being stacked against them, the rules will be changed to re-engineer the failure
      • THE NEW IQISM
        • Gillborn - teachers and policymakers make false assumptions about the nature of a pupil's potential. They're judged on perceived attitude and disciplinary concerns - this potential is seen as fixed
  • EVALUATION POINTS

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