Ethnic Differences in Achievement 

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  • Ethnic Differences in Achievement
    • What is an Ethnic group?
      • Shared culture, identity and history
      • Distinct group based on religion, geography and language
    • Ethnic Differences in achievement
      • Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pupils are seen to do worse than white pupils
      • White pupils are close tot he national average but they are the minority of the schools population
      • Black working-class girls do better than white working class girls
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Intellectual and language skills
        • Children from black low income families lack intellectual stimulation
        • Engelmann claims that poor black American families language is ungrammatical and disjoined
        • Some children do not speak English at home which means that they may be held back eduationally
      • Attitudes, values and family structure
        • Cultural deprivation theory claims that some black children are focused on immediate gratification resulting in a lack of motivation
        • Murray claims that a lack of a male role model is a result of under achievement of lone family pupils
        • Black Caribbean culture is less resistant of racism because of the experience of slavery which builds lower self esteem.
      • Lupton claims that poor levels of behaviour and discipline are linked to lower parental support and negative attitudes towards education by the parents
      • Evans claims that the white street culture is brutal and brought into schools
      • Compensatory education
        • Head Start - USA- Poor children were compensated for their low income backgrounds and said to suffer because of deprivation
        • Sure Start - UK- Support for pre-school children in deprived areas
      • Criticisms of cultural deprivation
        • Keddie argues that ethnic groups are culturally different and not cultural deprived
        • Ball argues that ethic group parents are not aware of the British education system and so are at a disadvantage
        • Compensatory education imposes the dominance of middle class culture
    • Material deprivation and class
      • Pakistanis and Bangladeshi are more likely to be poor than whites
      • Unemployment is higher so there is lower pay and so housing is overcrouded
      • Racism in society
        • Ethnic groups face racism and discrimination at work and as a result they are more likely to have low pays or be unemployed therefore their children's educational success is poor
      • Internal Factors (school) and ethnic differences
        • Teachers give racist labels to black/Asian pupils disadvantaging them and bringing abut self-fulfilling prophecy that leads to under achievement
        • Youdell found that teachers had expectations towards black pupils and expected more discipline problem and saw their behaviour as threatening. Black pupils were more likely to be punished than whites. Teachers under estimated their abilities.
        • There were racist stereotypes made by teachers which could lead to higher levels of black boys exclusions and black pupil being placed inn lower streamse
        • Wright found that Asian children were stereotyped as the teachers ued simplistic language assuming that they don't know English, they mispronounced their names and saw them as a problem that they could igonre.

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