Ethnic Differences in Achievement

  • Created by: Megnicpip
  • Created on: 07-06-18 15:58
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  • Ethnic Differences in Achievement
    • Patterns
      • National Pupil Database 2013 GCSE
        • whites and asains do better than blacks
        • white pupils account for 4/5 of all pupils
        • middle class do better than working class across all ethnic groups
      • Department for Education and Skills 2010
        • 23% of white boys on FSM gained 5 A* to C at GCSE
      • Hastings
        • white pupils make less progress between 11 and 16 than black or asain pupils
        • white pupils are likely to become the worst performing ethnic group in the country
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Evaluation
        • Driver: ignores positive effects of ethnicity on achievement. Afro carribean families are female headed providing positive role models and are more liekly to go to university than white pupils
        • Keddie: victim-blaming explanation, not culturally deprived just different, schools ethnocentricity is the problem
        • Lawrence: black culture is not weak
          • Anti-racist Education: a policy that challenges the prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools
          • Multi-cultural Education: a policy that recognizes and values minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum
      • Attitudes and Values
        • some black children are socialised into a subculture that instills a fatalistic attitude that does not value education  and leaves them unequipped for success
        • Asian Families
          • place a high value on education
          • Lupton:adults authority in asian families is very similar to the model found in school so parents are more likely to be supportive of behavioural policies
        • White Families
          • McCulloch: ethnic minority pupils are more likely to aspire to go to university than white pupils
          • A lack of parental support has been blamed
          • Evans: blames street culture saying that it can be brutal, and become a place of power games
      • Intellectual and Linguistic Skills
        • low income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences therefore, unable to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills
        • Bereiter et al: low income black american families have inadequate language. it is disjointed, ungrammatical and incapable of expressing abstract ideas
          • in 2010 pupils with english as their first language only scored 3.2 points ahead of others
      • Family Structure and Parental Support
        • Moynihan et al: its a cycle where inadequatley socialised parents are schools failures.
        • Murray: a high rate of lone parenthood and a lack of positive role models leads to underachievement
        • Gillborn: it is not peer pressure but institutional racism that systematically produces the failure of large numbers of black boys
        • Sewell: a lack of fatherly nurturing. cultural differences in socialisation and attitudes towards education
    • Material Deprivation
      • Labelling and Teacher Racism
        • Gillborn et al: black pupils on entry to primary school were high achievers but by GCSE they had low achievement across all ethnic groups
        • Strands: black Caribbean boys not entitled to FSM made significantly less progress than white peers, even though they were able
        • negative labels can cause the self-fulfilling prophecy
        • Black Pupils and Discipline
          • Bourne: schools see them as a threat, labelling them negatively
          • Osler: more likely to be put in pupil referral units and more likely to suffer from unofficial unrecorded exclusions
          • Gillborn et al: teachers expected them to prsent discipline problems and misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening and challenging authority
        • Asian Pupils: Wright: british culture is seen as superior leaving asian pupils out of discussions and using simplistic language when talking to them
        • Black Pupils and Streaming
          • Foster: negative stereotypes about ability result in the self-fulfilling prophecy
          • Gillborn et al: negative stereotypes means they are placed in lower streams
      • Pupil Identities
        • Archer: teachers dominant discourse defines ethnic minority groups as lacking the favoured ideal pupil identity
          • Ideal: a white, middle class, masculinised, natural ability and initiative
          • Pathologised: an asian, 'deserving poor', feminised, asexual or oppressed sexuality, plodding conformist, 'culture bound' overachiever
          • Demonised:a black or white, hyper-sexualised, unintelligent, peer-led, culturally deprived, under-achiever
      • Pupil Subcultures and Responses
        • Fuller found girls  behavior was a way of dealing with the demand to succeed whilst friends with other streams
          • Negative labeling does not always lead to failure
            • Supported by Mac an Ghalil who found responses depended on ethnic group, gender and the nature of former schools
        • Mirza
          • Racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious through the kind of advice they gave about options and careers
          • Students put themselves at a disadvantage by not taking part in lessons and avoiding racist teachers
        • Sewell identified 4 groupss of students: innovators, retreatists, rebels and conformists
      • Institutional Racism
        • CRT:Gillborn: it is so deep rooted and so large that it is practically inevitable feature. Roithmayr: a 'locked in inequality', it is self perpetuating
      • Marketisation and Segregation
        • Access to Opportunities
          • Gillborn: G&T white over twice as likely as black carribeans to be chosen
          • Tikeley et al: black pupils were more likely than white pupils to be entered for lower tiers
        • Gillborn: allows schools to select pupils and negative stereotypes to influence decisions. Moore et al: failed to get into good secondary schools due to discrimination
        • Ethnocentric Curriculm
          • David: british curriculm ignores non-european languages, music or literature
          • Ball: history curriculum ignores ethnic diversity instead promoting 'little englandism'
          • Stone: black children dont suffer from low self esteem
        • Criticisms of Gillborn
          • Sewell: institutional racism is the main cause, it is not a powerful enough force to prevent individuals from succueding
    • Does Class Over-ride Ethnicity?
      • Modood: no, white children from low income families generally did less well, the effects of low income were much less for other ethnic groups
      • Rex: racial discrimination leads to social exlusion and this worsens the poverty faced by ethnic minorities
      • Wood et al: 1 in 16 ethnic minority applicants were offered an interview against 1 in 9 white applicants. ethnic minorities are more likely to face unemployment

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