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  • Ethics
    • Informed Consent
      • If the patient is below 16, their parents give permission for them to participate but if they are above 16 they give consent themselves
      • How to deal with it
        • Make sure parent/carer agree if patient is below 16 and if above 16 they can sign themselves
      • Limitations
        • If the parents disagree it could affect the experiment and it means you may have to lie so patients don't try and change the results
    • Deception
      • The scientists cannot lie to the patients
        • How to deal with it
          • Tell them the vague outline of what will happen but leave out certain details
      • Limitations
        • Patients could potentially try and change course of results if they know what the experiment is actually for
    • The Right to Withdraw
      • The participants or scientists must be told they can withdraw if necessary
      • How to deal with it
        • Tell participants they can leave the experiment if they wish
      • Limitations
        • If people withdraw there will be less results which will affect final conclusion
    • Protection From Physical + Psychological Harm
      • Participant cannot be mentally or physically harmed
      • How to deal with it
        • Participants cannot be mentally or physically harmed
      • Limitations
        • Some experiments may involve raising stress levels or dangerous activities
    • Confidentiality + Privacy
      • How to deal with it
        • Replace names with numbers. Participants have the right to have their results removed
      • Limitations
        • Participants may pull their results out
    • Dealing With Ethical Issues
      • Ethical Guidelines
        • The BPS regularly updates its ethical guidelines. The current version is the 'Code of Ethics and Conduct'. The Canadians went down a different route of hypothetical dilemas and had psychologists discuss them
      • Ethical Committees
        • All institutions where research takes place have an ethics committee and the committee must approve any study before it begins. It looks at all potential ethical issues in any research proposal
      • Cost Benefit Analysis
        • The problem with cost benefit decisions is that it is difficult, if not impossible, to predict both costs and benefits prior to conducting a study. Diana Baumrind argued that the cost benefit approach solves nothing because you simply exchange one set of dilemas for another.
      • Punishment
        • If a psycholoigist does behave in an unethical manner then the BPS reviews the research and may decide to ban the person from practising as a psychologist. It is not a legal matter.


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