Ethics P2 - RELIGION,PEACE AND JUSTICE

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  • Created on: 23-04-17 17:31
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  • ETHICS           PAPER 2 :    Religion, Peace and Justice
    • JUST WAR:
      • Jus Ad Bellum: is is right to go to war
      • Just Post Bellum : is peace well established
      • Why do people go to war
        • to gain independence, to help another country , to defend their own country, for land, for religious reasons, defend their human rights, to gain more power
      • THE JUST WAR THEORY by AQUINAS
        • This is a set of rules which help define whether a war is morally acceptable
        • 1) JUST CAUSE=  there must be a moral and just reason for war e.g to defend the country.
        • 2)JUST Declaration=  the war must be fought with proper authority given by a government act of terrorism is deemed just as its no declared by proper authority
        • 4)LAST RESORT: A  war should be the last reason before coming to the conclusion of a war, it should be solved by peaceful means
        • 5)JUST CHANCES OF SUCCESS: there must be a reasonable chance of success  as you cannot go into the war with little chance of success as you would be wasting peoples lives
        • 6)JUST MEANS: the force you use e.g the weapons should be proportional to the cause. for example it would not be proportional to drop a nuclear bomb on a small country for killing a few soldiers
        • JUST TARGETS: violence must be controlled. every war effort should be made so that little violence is used and avoid killing civilians
        • 3)JUST INTENTION : war must be fought for the right reason for example  for to restore peace or prevent any further evil
    • WHAT DOES THE BIBLE TEACH ABOUT WAR AND VIOLENCE
      • "love thy neighbor" - Jesus (against war)
      • "you shall not  kill  - Decalogue (against war)
      • "there is a time fro killing .... a time for war  and a time for peace" - Ecclesiastes (for war)
      • "the lord is a warrior" -exodus (for war)
      • MASSACRE OF AI  - old testament encouraged a massacre of a whole city and its people. 12,00 people were massacred in one day. ~ this shows how the old tempests supports war
        • HOWEVER - the new testament barely involves any violence .
          • except  for this which tlaks of jesus hs not someone to bring peace to erath but a sword "do not suppse that i have come to bring peace, i did not come to bring but a sword
          • "Blessed are the peacemakers" - Matthew
    • What does the church teach about war and violence
      • chruch of England
        • "war is a sometimes an unfortunate necessity"
      • Mehtodist
        • believe that is the individuals should follow their own conscience.
      • THE CRUSADES
        • these were a set of holy wars issued out by POPE URBAN IN 1095. these wars were between the muslims and christans to obtian the holy land in the middle east.. the promise of riches and the chnace to get into heaven made people want to fight. they carrried on for 200 years but the Christians only controlled the holy land once for a year. these crusades killed millions of innocents
          • Francis Beacon listed 5 causes for a holy war  ~ to spread faith , to retrieve countries winch were once Christians,( even if no Christians live there) , to avenge blasphemous acts  etc
    • PACIFISM
      • PROS-        no deaths , people dont experience mental disorders induced form killing others and seeing others killed, creates a more peaceful environment an displace of people . keeps morality in the world
        • CONS   - could result in your country being conquered is you refuse to defend in through force this could result in innocent deaths etc, your not living up to your duty as a citizen of your country if you dont defend it
      • ABSOLUTE PACIFIST: someone against any reason for war, will never use violence in a situation in life is to valuable
      • ACTIVE PACIFIST: people who stand against war through politics and protests, peaceful means. - CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOR= one that objects to a war on the ground of their conscience
        • DESMOND DOSS - conscientious objector = a christian who refused to fight during WW1 ( didn't even pick a gun) therefore served as an army medic  on one of their missions troops were bombarded with bombs and shootings from he enemy. many soldiers retreated but Doss stayed behind to help and saved 75 injured soldiers using medical aid and his own valor. because of this he was awarded the medal of honor
      • CONDITIONAL PACIFIST- agianst war but believes that it acceptable as an alternative that is less bad   as it may be good to save a greater amount of people
    • CAPITAL PUNISHMEnT
      • PROS:         permanently removes the worse criminals from society so its safer, money should be spent of hospitals  and schools not on long term imprisonment , the punishment should fit the crime eg if you kill someone you should pay by dying too, some people believe that it would restore the natural balance of the world  balancing it by killing the murder who killed a person
        • CONS       people make mistakes eg could've been a rush action, it is against out basic human right of life, no evidence that the criminal could stop committing crimes in the future, instead of killing we should help them get back to the right state of mind
      • ELIZABETH FRY :a lady that devoted herself to humanitarian causes
        • "punishment is not for revenge but to lesson the crime and reform the criminal"(against cp)
      • "Obey the government for god is The one who put it there"  - Romans     (for cp)
      • Violence is a lie, violence destroys what it claims to defend, the life, the freedom of human beings - Pope John Paul II  (against cp)
      • "Never pay back evil with evil" - romans     (against cp)
  • Quaker
    • believe in no vilolence at all and are pacifists
      • "the spirit of Christ,...will never move us to fight against any man... neither for the kingdom of Christ or for the kingdoms of the world"
    • What does the church teach about war and violence
      • chruch of England
        • "war is a sometimes an unfortunate necessity"
      • Mehtodist
        • believe that is the individuals should follow their own conscience.
      • THE CRUSADES
        • these were a set of holy wars issued out by POPE URBAN IN 1095. these wars were between the muslims and christans to obtian the holy land in the middle east.. the promise of riches and the chnace to get into heaven made people want to fight. they carrried on for 200 years but the Christians only controlled the holy land once for a year. these crusades killed millions of innocents
          • Francis Beacon listed 5 causes for a holy war  ~ to spread faith , to retrieve countries winch were once Christians,( even if no Christians live there) , to avenge blasphemous acts  etc
  • Catholic
    • has had a poor history (holy wars) with pacifism bu now encourages pacifism but allows individuals to use their conscience
  • doctirne of double effect
    • this is a philosophical principle which states that killing is  always morally wrong but if you defend yourself  with the right moderation and it leads to the murder of the attacker than that violent attack is morally acceptable
    • Catholic
      • has had a poor history (holy wars) with pacifism bu now encourages pacifism but allows individuals to use their conscience
  • SOCIAL INJUSTICE :  used to describe situations where people are given fewer rights and opportunities than others and so society is unfair
    • ""there is neither Jew nor Greek... male of female ... we are all equal in Jesus Christ   - Galatians     (against social injustice) as we are all equal so why should some be given fewer rights and opportunities to others when we are all equal
    • evil will only succeed when good people do nothing - Martin Luther King (against Social Injustice)
    • Oscar Romero wa the archbishop of El Salvador, a area stricken with poverty and a corrupt  government. the government killed his friend for speaking against it therefore Romero began to spread awareness about it and help the poor. he was assassinated in 1980
      • "the church must be the voice of the poor"
    • "seek justice, encourage the oppressed" - Isaiah
    • Poverty is an evil that is something God does not want so we must destroy it -GUSTAVO GUITIEREZ

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