Ethics of Neuroscience

  • Created by: Mbegum
  • Created on: 29-12-18 20:24
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  • Ethics of neuroscience
    • understanding  consciousness
      • unethical
        • if locate consciousness
          • person in vegetative state = do we have the right to w/draw life support
            • do we have moral right to w/draw care?
        • Koubessi et al
          • uses lady w/ epilepsy
            • doubt about validity of evidence
      • ethical
        • Crick & Koch
          • claustrum = layer of neurons + combines info from diff regions of brain
            • proposed area of consciousness
        • Koubessi et al
          • 54years lady w/ epilepsy
            • electrode placed near claustrum = no response to enviro stimuli
              • repeats = same results
            • electrode removed = regained consciousness = no recall of event
        • this knowledge = help decide to end life for someone in constsant vegetative state by observing consciousness
    • treat criminal behav
      • unethical
        • Martha Farah
          • neurological interventions = denial of freedom
            • can't have own personality
        • ethical issue
          • court offer prison or medication = implicit coercion
            • very little choice
      • ethical
        • Criminal Justice System
          • if NT's = cause of crim behac
            • drugs = treat criminals
        • Cherek et al
          • investigate aggression in males w/ crim behav
            • 1/2 = placebo + 1/2 = SSRI
              • SSRI = s.f reduced impassivity
                • therefore pharmacological treatment should be offered
                  • to reduce recividism + make society safer
    • Enhance neurological function
      • unethical
        • Cohen Kadosh
          • ethical implications of TDCS
            • can cause more harm than good = physical harm
              • don't need to license to practise this treatment
        • unfair
          • may be available only to cartain indiv
            • not fair that only some indiv benefit and not all
              • therefore should ban neuro-enhancement tech across the board
      • ethical
        • Cohen Kadosh et al
          • TDCS = Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
            • improves problem-solving + mathematical skills
              • students = can use to prepare for exams
        • however = argued students already enhancing neurological function
          • caffiene-based drinks = blocks adenosie recptors
            • more alert during revision
    • improve marketing techniques
      • unethical
        • not new
          • gaining consumers preferences = via loyalty cards = made marketing more efficient
        • wilson et al
          • neuromarketing = manipulates free will
            • removes ability to make informed decision about what to purchase
      • ethical
        • EEG = eye-tracking equipment
          • used to analyse neurological response to advertisement
            • elimnates social desirability bias = that exists when using normal marketing tech e.g questionnaires
        • Neuromarketing = good for the economy
          • very successful = boosts sales - like it did for VW
    • Ethical + social implications
      • Economy
        • neuro-marketing = improves sales + profits
          • increases jobs = decrease unemployment
      • Nuffield trust

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