Ethics

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  • ETHICS
    • Deontological
      • Kant Deontology
        • I. Kant
        • Duty
          • To act morally is to do one's duty
        • OUGHT = CAN
        • Summum Bonum
          • Humans seek an ultimate end  called the supreme good
        • Morality led to God
        • A-Priori Synthentic
          • Reason NOT sense experience
        • Categorical Imperatives always apply
          • Universal Law = Act only according to the maxim which can become UNIVERSAL
          • Treat humans as ends in themselves
          • Act as if you live in a kingdom of ends
        • Humans are free to make rational choices
        • Prohibits acts that are considered immoral
        • Gives humans intrinsic worth - which cannot be sacrificed for the majority
        • Cannot resolve conflicting duties
        • Universal Law, generalizes different but similar moral dilemmas
    • Absolutist
      • Natural Moral Law
        • St. Thomas Aquinas
          • The intention and the act are important
            • Acting in a GOOD WAY for the WRONG REASON = GOOD EXTERIOR ACT, but a BAD INTERIOR ACT
        • Ethicacy of actions
        • To assist humans and direct them to a supernatural end in a higher way
        • Good is done and pursued and evil is avoided
        • Uses reason
        • Primary Precepts:  Self Preservation - Continuation of the Species - Educate Children - Live in Society - Worship God
          • Secondary Precepts: Do not Murder - Do not Abort - Defend the Defenceless - Do not commit Suicide
          • Gives guidance on day-to-day questions of how to live and links them to fundamental principles
        • Bad things and acts that humans pursue are  APPARENT GOODS, when they believe falsely that they are good
        • Establishes common rules to structure communities
        • M\any cultures exhibit these principles - making it seem reasonable
        • Gives guidance on day-to-day questions of how to live and links them to fundamental principles
        • Dispute of the presence of a common natural law
        • Humans have changeable natures
        • A Christian ethic and yet Jesus' was opposed to legalistic morality
        • The natural is that which everywhere is equally valid
    • Teleological
      • Utilitarianism
        • J. Bentham
          • Human beings are motivated by pleasure and pain
          • Humans pursue pleasure
            • The Hedonic Calculus = the weighing up of pain and pleasure. BASED on 7 FACTORS
          • Humans seek to avoid pain
          • Utility Principle = the rightness and wrongness of an action is determined by its usefulness
            • Usefulness refers to the amount of pleasure caused by the action
        • J S. Mill
          • The well-being of the individual is of the greatest importance
            • Happiness is gained when individuals are free to pursue their own ends
          • Qualitative Pleasures = higher (mind) and lower (body) pleasures
        • Act Utility = the good action is the one that leads to the greatest good
          • Flexible
          • Takes into account individual situations
          • Can justify virtually any act
          • Impractical to measure each moral choice
        • Rule Utility = the best overall rule that when pursued by the whole community leads to the greatest result
          • Overcomes some of the difficulties made by Act Utility
          • Minorities interests are not protected
        • Reasonable to link morality to happiness
        • Reasonable to assume humans avoid pain
        • Natural to consider the consequences of our actions
        • Offers democratic morality
        • Difficult to quantify pleasures
        • Pain can be good
        • What is happiness - SUBJECTIVE
        • Relies on knowledge of consequences but predictions of the outcome can be a mistake
    • Relativist
      • Situation Ethics
        • J. Fletcher
          • The situationist follows a moral law OR violates it according to love's need
        • Conscience = weighing up the possible action before it's taken
        • Bultmann
          • "Love thy neighbour as thy self", is the ultimate duty
        • Moral decisions are guided by what best serves love
        • Six Fundamental Principles
          • 4th - Love wills the neighbour's good
          • 3rd - Love and justice are the same
          • 5th - The end justifies the means
          • 2nd - Ruling norm is love
          • 6th - Desicions are made situationaly
          • 1st - Love is intrinsically good
        • Prepares to set aside the rules for the most loving outcome
        • Four Working Principles
          • Positivism = giving first place to Christian love
          • Relativism = avoids words like "never"
          • Personalism = puts people first
          • Pragmatism = which is a practical posture
        • Tillich
          • The law of love is the ultimate law because it is the negation of law
        • Flexible and Practical
        • An alternative Christian ethic that is not legalistic
        • Subjective
        • Individualistic
        • A loving end could justify actions that many people regard as simply wrong
      • Utilitarianism
        • J. Bentham
          • Human beings are motivated by pleasure and pain
          • Humans pursue pleasure
            • The Hedonic Calculus = the weighing up of pain and pleasure. BASED on 7 FACTORS
          • Humans seek to avoid pain
          • Utility Principle = the rightness and wrongness of an action is determined by its usefulness
            • Usefulness refers to the amount of pleasure caused by the action
        • J S. Mill
          • The well-being of the individual is of the greatest importance
            • Happiness is gained when individuals are free to pursue their own ends
          • Qualitative Pleasures = higher (mind) and lower (body) pleasures
        • Act Utility = the good action is the one that leads to the greatest good
          • Flexible
          • Takes into account individual situations
          • Can justify virtually any act
          • Impractical to measure each moral choice
        • Rule Utility = the best overall rule that when pursued by the whole community leads to the greatest result
          • Overcomes some of the difficulties made by Act Utility
          • Minorities interests are not protected
        • Reasonable to link morality to happiness
        • Reasonable to assume humans avoid pain
        • Natural to consider the consequences of our actions
        • Offers democratic morality
        • Difficult to quantify pleasures
        • Pain can be good
        • What is happiness - SUBJECTIVE
        • Relies on knowledge of consequences but predictions of the outcome can be a mistake
      • Virtue Theory
        • A. MacIntyre
          • Modern ethics had lost sight of its roots
        • Anscombe
          • Modern moral philosophy was mis-guided
        • To achieve that end we must practice - practicing improves our skills
        • How you can be a better person
        • Defines good people and the qualities that make them good
        • To judge a man is to judge his actions
        • Suggests a way of estimating character and a way in which we can become a better person
        • Agent-centered
        • Encompasses all aspects of life
        • Looks at the fundamental issue of what it means to be human
        • Focuses on the person rather than the consequences
        • Defining the virtues is far from the clear
        • Whenever we do something - we did it to gain an end - the ultimate end was the greatest good

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