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  • Esters
    • functional group = -COO
    • are formed from an alcohol & a carboxylic acid
      • an acid catalyst is usually used (e.g. sulfuric acid)
      • also produces water
    • often used in flavourings & perfumes
      • used in ointments & as solvents
      • things need to think about when using esters
        • inhaling the fumes (of some) irritates mucous membranes in nose & mouth
        • ester fumes = heavier than air & are v. flammable
          • could cause a flash fire
        • some are toxic - worries associated with synthetic food additives
        • but aren't as toxic or volatile as some other organic solvents
          • don't release nearly as many toxic fumes
    • names
      • end in -oate
      • alcohol forms 1st part of name
        • e.g. ethanol = ethyl
      • acid forms the 2nd part
        • e.g. propanoic acid = propanoate
    • smell nice but don't mix well with water
      • often quite sweet & fruity
      • also volatile
      • many are flammable
      • do mix well with alcohols & organic solvents


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