Silver Crest Award = Essential Elements

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  • Essential Elements
    • MACRO - MOLECULES (Required in small amounts)
      • Carbon (CO2)
        • Major parts of plant tissue from atmosphere + water.
      • Hydrogen (H2)
        • Major parts of plant tissue from atmosphere + water.
      • Oxygen (O2)
        • Phosphorus (P)
          • Part of every day cells (occurs in protoplasm). Greater concentration in seeds = greater production. Deficiency = purple colouration at seedling stage, later yellowing stunted growth + delayed maturity.
        • Potassium (K)
          • It is essential in all metabolic processes. Influences uptake of other elements + affects respiration and transportation.Encourages cell wall thickening, synthesis and translocation of carbs. Deficiency = yellowing of leaf tips/margins - result of leeching and cultivation.
        • Magnesium (Mg)
          • It is active in enzyme systems and forms part of chlorophyll. Deficiency = discolouration and premature defoliation. Animals affected.Cure= adding Mg fertiliser.
        • Sulphur (S)
          • Deficiency = stunting and yellowing (cured - gypsum)
        • Nitrogen (N2)
          • From atmosphere + dead tissues, forms part of every cell in chlorophyl + all proteins. Abundance = green, suculent growth. Deficiency = loss of colour, gradual yellowing, less proteins + stunted growth.
        • Calcium (Ca)
          • In form of calcium pectate it forms part of the cell wall structure . Necessary for growth of stem tips. Deficiency =  malformation of growing parts; symptoms are seldom in the field.
      • MICRO - MOLECULES (Required in smaller amounts)
        • Molybdenum (Mo)
          • Necessary for reduction of nitrate in plant otherwise it will accumulate and interfere with protein synthesis. Deficiency = formation of narrow leaves
        • Boron (B)
          • Has a role in Ca utilisation and development of actively growing parts of the plant.
        • Zinc (Zn)
          • Deficiency = vary
        • Chlorine (Cl)
          • Regulates osmotic pressure. Deficiency = wilting and bronzing.
        • Copper (Cu)
          • Form parts of the enzyme systems + necessary for formation of growth promoting substances
            • Zinc (Zn)
              • Deficiency = vary
          • Cu deficiency common on peak leading to growth abnormalities e.g. rapid wilting + weak stalks. Cured using copper oxychloride solution - soil sprayed with copper sulphate solution.
        • Cobalt (Co)
          • Necessary for formation of nodules and N2 fixation
        • Manganese (Mn)
          • Play a role in enzyme systems, necessary in synthesis. Deficiency = (only in juvenile leaves) yellowing. High pH + good drainage may cause deficiencies and is cured by using MnSO4
            • Iron (Fe)
        • Iron (Fe)

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