Chemistry AS CI 5.1 ES

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  • Created by: A.B.
  • Created on: 17-02-14 10:31
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  • ES Ions in Solids and Solutions CI 5.1
    • Structure of an ionic lattice: sodium chloride
      • Consists of Sodium ions (Na+) each surrounded by six Chloride ions (Cl-)
        • Ions are held together by oppositely charged ions.
        • Allows a giant ionic lattice to be built up
          • Similar electrostatic bonds hold all ionic lattices together.
        • Lattice structure is simple cubic.
      • Some ionic crystals contain water molecules
        • Sit within lattice and are known as 'water of crystallisation'
        • Crystals are said to be hydrated
    • Ionic Substances in Solution
      • Many ionic compounds dissolve in water without difficulty.
        • As they disolve, the ions become surrounded by water molecules and they spread throughout the solution.
          • Water is a polar molecule with a bent shape.
            • The positive hydrogen atoms in water are attracted to the negative ions and the negative oxygen atoms are attracted to the positive ions.
            • Each ion is surrounded by its own sphere of water molecules - this process is known as hydration.
        • The hydrated ions are randomly arranged and behave independently.
      • Ionic Equations
        • Ions in solution behave independently.
          • Ions that are not involved in the reaction are called spectator ions and are omitted from the ionic  equation.
        • Will ionic precipitation reactions take place when two solutions are mixed?
          • All NITRATES are SOLUBLE in water
          • All Chlorides are soluble in water (except SILVER and LEAD CHLORIDE)
          • All Sulphates are soluble in water (except BARIUM, LEAD and STRONTIUM)
          • All SODIUM, POTASSIUM and AMMONIUM salts are SOLUBLE in water
          • All carbonates are insoluble in water (except AMMONIUM and GROUP 1)
        • Neutralisation ionic equation
          • H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) -> H2O (l)


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