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  • Equality's 4 main aspects
    • Resourcism: equal in resources (money, assets)
    • Equality
      • Justification of Capitalism
        • Distributive paradigm
          • Definition: the amount of equality in soceity
          • Nelson Mandela: "Poverty is not an accident. Like slavery and apartheid, it is man-made and can be removed by the actions of human beings"
          • We have control over the social, legal and political patterns of human action. There are things in the natural world that we cannot control but thiese always stand in need of justification
        • Invisible Hand vs. Regulation
          • Laissez faire market does not centrally distribute goods
            • Smiths IHT is the hypothesis that the market will put goods into the right hands
              • Those who want the goods, can afford them, need them, have interest in them which will benefit the whole of society (trickle down)
              • But regulation is still needed as we consider the distributive justice of goods
            • The US and many other democratic states have  every man for himself attitude towards equality
              • The minial state leaves individuals a great deal of freedom, thus your position in socieity is of own motives and effort
                • Caveat says that just because the power of the state isnt used it doesnt mean we cant still help each other. We can have non-coercive communities of friends, nations, professions and charities that help close the inequality gap
      • Egalitarian Debate
        • Telic Egalitarianism (teleological is concerned with the end of state affairs and not how they came about)
          • Temkin believes that inequality is intrinsically bad
            • This is built by looking at how it manifests itself, who is involved and whether people are better off in different situations
            • LEVELLING DOWN OBJECTION (Nozick)
              • If inequality is bad, the eradication of inequality is good
                • If there were blind people and sighted people, the world is unequal
                  • So if we make everyone blind (poor) everyone is equal in their poverty and inequality
        • (Advocacy for equality)
        • Priortarianism (Rawls)
          • Equality requires making the worst off as well off as possible
            • If we see a situation of inequality between the richest, who already have millions between them, closing the gap between the richest makes them richer
              • We have to look at the richest in order to see who are the poorest and improve their situation
        • Luck Egalitarian (Dworkin)
          • Brute Luck are where situations out side of our control contribute to inequality (think Haiti, with earthquakes and infertile soil, with a history of violent colonialism)
          • Option Luck, we deserve the costs of it because we brought in on ourselves
      • Multicultural
        • Two paradigms of multicultural-ism
          • Multi-National States
            • When one state has grown around multiple national groups
          • Multicultural State
            • Immigaration thrughout the life of the state has meant the citizens have diverse cultural heritages
          • Kymlicka: Liberal Multicultural-ism and intergration
            • Immigrants should bear the costs of their choices, lack of state support aids in the integration
            • Equality requires compensation of those who bear their own consequence-s
              • Compensation includes respectfully funding cultural practices, churches, translations, rights
          • Group Rights: individual or collective
            • Sikh men are exempt from the requirement to wear motorcycle helmets
            • Halal meats are exempt from the requirement that animals must be stunned prior to slaughter
    • Welfarism: equal in happiness and satisfaction
      • Problems
        • Hedonistic view is not always good, what makes some people happy may hurt others
          • Preference satisfaction panders to unrealistic wants
            • Dworkin calls these "champagne tastes" referring to unnecessary wants is not what the state should provide
            • Sen says we have adaptive preferences, those desires which come from our contextual circumstances
              • The poor accept their sub-standard welfare and relative happiness provided by the state but they deserve much more
    • Capabilities: equal in functionality (health, literacy)
    • Luck: equal in terms of how bad luck (culture, race class) may disadvantage


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