Epistemology

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  • Epistemology
    • 3.1.1
      • What is knowledge
        • The nature of knowledge
          • Linda Zagzebski
  • Propositional knowledge is defined as justified true belief: S knows that p if and only if:
    • S is justified in believing that p
      • p is true and
        • S believes that p (individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions)
    • The tripartite view
      • 3.1.1
        • What is knowledge
          • The nature of knowledge
            • Linda Zagzebski
      • Issues with tripartie
        • the conditions are not individually necessary
          • Solutions
            • the conditions are not sufficient – cases of lucky true beliefs (including Edmund Gettier’s original two counter examples):
            • alternative post-Gettier analyses/definitions of knowledge
              • strengthen the justification condition (ie infallibilism)
              • replace 'justified' with an account of epistemic virtue (V+T+B).
              • replace 'justified' with 'reliably formed' (R+T+B) (ie reliabilism)
              • add a 'no false lemmas' condition (J+T+B+N)
        • the conditions are not sufficient – cases of lucky true beliefs (including Edmund Gettier’s original two counter examples):
  • 3.1.2
    • Perception as a source of knowledge
      • Direct realism
        • The immediate objects of perception are mind-independent objects and their properties
          • Problems with this
            • argument from time lag
            • argument from hallucination
            • argument from perceptual variation
            • argument from illusion
      • Indirect realism
      • Berkleys idealism
        • The immediate objects of perception (ie ordinary objects such as tables, chairs, etc) are mind-dependent objects.
          • Arguments for idealism including Berkeley's attack on the primary/secondary quality distinction and his 'Master' argument.
          • Problems
            • arguments from illusion and hallucination
            • idealism leads to solipsism
            • problems with the role played by God in Berkeley's Idealism (including how can Berkeley claim that our ideas exist within God's mind given that he believes that God cannot feel pain or have sensations?)
    • Epistemology
    • The immediate objects of perception are mind-dependent objects (sense-data) that are caused by and represent mind-independent objects.
      • John Locke's primary/secondary quality distinction.
      • Indirect realism
      • Problems
        • the argument that it leads to scepticism about the existence of mind-independent objects
        • the argument from George Berkeley that we cannot know the nature of mind-independent objects because mind-dependent ideas cannot be like mind-independent objects.
    • Innatism
      • Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth
        • Arguments from Plato (ie the 'slave boy' argument) and Gottfried Leibniz (ie his argument based on necessary truths).
        • the mind as a 'tabula rasa' (the nature of impressions and ideas, simple and complex concepts)
        • Locke's arguments against innatism
      • 3.1.3
        • The intuition and deduction thesis
          • René Descartes’ notion of ‘clear and distinct ideas’.
            • His cogito as an example of an a priori intuition.
              • His arguments for the existence of God and his proof of the external world as examples of a priori deductions.
                • Empirist reponse
                  • René Descartes’ notion of ‘clear and distinct ideas’.
                    • His cogito as an example of an a priori intuition.
                      • His arguments for the existence of God and his proof of the external world as examples of a priori deductions.
                        • Empirist reponse
                          • The intuition and deduction thesis
                            • responses to Descartes' cogito
                            • esponses to Descartes' arguments for the existence of God and his proof of the external world (including how Hume's Fork might be applied to these arguments)
                    • responses to Descartes' cogito
                    • esponses to Descartes' arguments for the existence of God and his proof of the external world (including how Hume's Fork might be applied to these arguments)

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