• Created by: rhiannzn
  • Created on: 09-05-19 17:55
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  • Epistemology
    • what is knowledge
      • ABILITY KNOWLEDGE:know how to do something
      • PROPOSITIONAL: Knowing that, making a claim about the world
        • plato argues that knowledge is a justified true belief
            • belief: if one doesn't believe in what they know, how can it be knowledge if it is counter intuitive.
              • PLATO - THE REPUBLIC - knowledge is infallible whilst beliefs are fallible. Both fundamentally different ways of apprehending the world.
            • truth: For a thing to count as knowledge it must be in accordance with reality otherwise it isn't knowledge at all.
              • COHERENCE THEORY OF TRUTH - Truth is a belief that is widely held by society to be true (e.g. flat earth).
                • HOWEVER CORRESPONDENCE THEORY argues that truth only exists in the correlation between a claim and a fact. If a fact is wrong, the claim is wrong. Therefore knowledge cannot be false.
            • Gettier counter examples
              • COINS IN POCKET
              • JONES CAR AND B in Barcelona
            • Fake Barn county
          • If P is true, James believes that P, James belief is justified and James did not infer anything false it is knowledge
            • (a lemma is the belief upon which a belief is made)
            • GETTIER: Overcomes, as it is based upon the lemma "Jones will get the job"
            • FAKE BARNS: Overcomes, as it is based upon the lemma "the barns are all real"
              • HOWEVER: When seeing real barn and believing it is real, there is nothing wrong with it yet its still a lucky guess
                • is this really  overcome? the fake barns example has real assumptions - the barns as real, and the essential assumption - that their are real barns - is also true. it is not essential for the barns to be fake...
            • AT RISK of infinite regress as one might begin to doubt all their beliefs, and as everything is made upon these everyday beliefs we have to change our entire reasoning system
          • William Lycon - no essential false assumptions.
          • when we justify a belief using an assumptive belief - a lemma.
        • infallibilsm
          • Infallibilsm is the belief that things can only be knowledge if they are infallible.
          • solves Gettier and Fake barns as neither Smith/Jones or the driver have any knowledge other than that they are a thinking mind.
            • EXTREME SCEPTICISM: Nothing we believe can be knowledge and that is simply counter-intuitive, we want to know how to define knowledge not discount all of it!! This would mean we discount all scientific knowledge we believe we know which doesn't settle right within anyone.
          • Jones believes P, P is true, Jones belief of P is due to him exercising his intellectual virtues.
            • Intellectual virtues are good memory, accurate understanding and data, the ability to think rationally whilst intellectual vices are luck and guessing
          • the more advanced ones traits are, the more capable and justified the belief is
          • fake barns: intellectual virtue of identification is missing and therefore doesn't count as knowledge
          • gettier: smith doesn't have a rational ability to think maybe Jones doesn't have a ford or that "Smith getting the job" lie could've been a test by the company
      • acquaintance: knowing of someone or something
      • Zagzebski: There is no true "essence" to knowledge due to its variations throughout history, suggesting it is culturally constructed and therefore undefinable.
        • ZAGZEBSKI - A CON (Ad hoc, Circularity, Obscurity, Negativity.)


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