Enzymes in digestion

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  • Created by: Moodymoo
  • Created on: 08-03-14 11:31
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  • Enzymes in Digestion
    • Digestive enzymes work outside cell
    • They are produced by specialised cells in glands and in the lining of your gut
    • Gut helps to break down food into small pieces with a large surface area and mixes food with digestive juices
      • Enzymes can then work on food
    • Enzymes that break down carbohydrates are called carbohydrases
      • Starch is broken down by amylase and turned into sugars
      • Amylase made in: salivary glands, pancreas, small intestine
    • Enzymes that break down proteins are called proteases
      • Protein is broken down by protease and turned into amino acids
      • protease made in: stomach, pancreas and small intestine
    • Enzymes that break down lipids (fats and oils) are called lipases
      • Lipids are broken down by lipase and are turned into fatty acids and glycerol
      • Lipids are made in: pancreas and small intestine
    • Different enzymes work best at different pH levels
      • Enzymes of stomach like acidic conditions
        • Stomach produces hydrochloric acid for this
          • It also kills bacteria
          • Stomach produces a thick layer of mucus which stops it from digesting itself
      • Enzymes of pancreas and small intestine like alkaline conditions
        • Liquid coming from stomach is acidic  so liver makes bile (stored n the gall bladder)
          • Food coming into small intestine has bile squirted on it, neutralising the food then making it alkaline
    • Altering the surface area
      • Fats don't mix well with watery liquids, they stay as large globules
        • Bile emulsifies fats meaning it makes large drops into small drops
          • This provides a larger surface area for lipase to act on


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