Enzymes and digestion

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  • Created by: Nadia123
  • Created on: 24-03-14 17:20
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  • Enzymes and digestion
    • Starch, proteins and fats are BIG molecules so can't pass through the walls of the digestive system.
      • Sugars, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids are much smaller so can easily pass through the walls of the digestive system
        • The digestive system breaks down big molecules into smaller ones
    • Amylase converts starch into sugars such as Maltose
      • It is made in 3 places: The salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine
    • Protease converts proteins into amino acids
      • It is made in 3 places: the stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine
    • Lipase converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
      • It is made in 2 places: the pancreas and the small intestine
    • Bile neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats
      • produced in the liver stored in the gall bladder before it's released into the small intestine
        • hydrochloric acid in stomach makes conditions acidic bile is alkaline so neutralises conditions enzymes in small intestine work best in alkaline conditions
        • breaks down fats into tiny droplets so there is a bigger surface area for the enzyme lipase to work on makes digestion faster
    • Enzymes used in the digestive system are produced by specialised cells in glands an in the gut lining
    • Enzymes are biological catalysts
      • Enzymes have special shapes so they can catalyse reactions
    • Enzymes need the right temperature and pH
      • Increasing temperature increases rate of reaction until a certain point, if it gets too hot the enzyme will denature enzymes in the human body normally work best at 37 degrees c
      • pH can denature the enzyme all enzymes have an optimum pH often pH 7 but not always e.g. pepsin breaks down protein in the stomach works best at pH 2


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