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    • have a specific 3 dimensional shape- due to tertiary structure
    • specific part of their structure called the ACTIVE SITE
      • exactly right shape for the substrate to fit into
    • Active site is complementary to the substrate
    • Substrate fits into the active site making the reaction occur more quickly
    • Enzymes are highly specific only ONE substrate can fit into enzymes active site
    • Activation energy
      • for reaction to occur, molecules need enough energy to get the reaction 'KICK STARTED'
      • Input of energy is called the activation energy
      • one way for a molecule to gain enough activation energy to overcome the energy barrier is to ADD HEAT
      • Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur, making it possible for the reaction to occur at 37c
      • energy barrier is much higher without an enzyme
    • Lock and key theory
      • each key has a specific shape that will only fit into one particular lock - similarly, each substrate will only fit into the active site of one specific enzyme
    • Induced Fit
      • Theory suggests: enzyme has a basic shape that is flexible.
      • substrate collides with enzyme, the enzymes shape changes, so the active site becomes a close fit for the substrate
        • This lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction. because the enzymes active site changes once the substrate is present


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