Factors affecting enzymes

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  • Factors affecting enzymes
    • Temperature
      • Kinetic energy increases
        • More successful collisions
          • Optimum pH (40 degrees)
            • Enzyme denatures -bonds break and tertiary form unravels
    • pH
      • Enzymes have an optimum pH e.g. pepsin (pH2), amylase (pH7)
        • Small changes lead to inactivation. Extreme changes leads to denaturation
          • If active site has too many H+ ions, the active site and substrate have same charge and repel
    • Substrate Concentration
      • As the substrate concentration increases, the active sites will all become full, and rate is at its maximum
    • Enzyme Concentration
      • Increasing enzyme concentration, increases rate
        • Turnover number
    • Competitive Inhibitors
      • e.g. malonic acid
      • Competes with the substrate for the active site preventing ESCs being formed
      • If you inrease substrate concentration, it'll reduce the effect of the inhibitor
    • Non-competitive inhibitors
      • e.g. cyanide
      • Binds to allosteric site, causing the active site to change shape, meaning the site is no longer complementary to the substrate

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