ENZYMES

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  • Enzymes
    • cofactors and coenzymes  NON-proteins
      • inorganic = metals zn2+
        • allow the E to function: change AS OR allow the sub to bind eff to AS
      • organic = vitamins vitamin c
        • allow enzymes to work
    • enzyme action
      • lock and key
        • E and S mc fit together exactly as they E has the exact shape in the AS to fit the S
      • induced fit
        • E and S are sim shapes and when the S binds to the E AS they E molds to be and exact fit then returns to pre AS and the s no longer fits and they P are released
      • E+S------ESC-------EPC =E+P
        • Formation of ESC = Activation E of reaction to be <
          • placing a strain on the bonds which hold s together = easier to break
          • appropriate parts of the reactant mc are brought close together making it easier to form a bond
          • activation E      the amount of E required in order for a reaction to occur
            • enzymes lower AC =allow rapid reactions
              • organic catalyst
      • pH
        • Changes pH = > or< H+     either side of otp pH H and Ionic bonds disrupted = AS no longer com
      • sub con
        • increase rate of reaction > ESC then all enzyme are occupied and E Con = LF
      • enz con
        • low con not enough AS for > rate by > EC = >AS and ESC forming until all AS are filled and no more Sub. Sub is LF
    • Globular proteins - tertiary structure
    • inhabitation
      • blocking the AS =< suc collisions w/ s
      • altering the AS =no longer com to s
      • types
        • competitive
          • mc sim shape to the S and fit into the AS on the E. TEMP attach to AS. they Compe w/ s for AS
            • depends on both con of sub and inh
          • will reach the same point as if there is no inh but takes longer
        • Non competitive
          • attach to the Allosteric Site. alters the shape of the AS
            • depends on only con of inh
          • will completely stop reaction
      • E.g penicillin and Statins
      • therapeutic drugs = competitive inh as need to be specific= operate in low does to avoid toxicity
        • AD: fewer side effects compared to normal drugs as highly specific to enzyme
    • biomarker
      • used to determine eff of particular drugs
        • samples
          • sputum
            • respiratory =E = ELASTASE
          • blood
          • urine
    • biosensors
      • clinistix -glucose in urine
      • pregnancy test HCG

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