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  • Activation energy
    • Enzymes
      • Anabolic reactions
        • where substrates are joined= larger product
          • 2 molecules joining are held close together by attaching to enzyme= reduces repulsion
      • Examples of enzymes
        • ATP-ase
          • Breakdown of ATP producing ADP + phosphate group
            • Releases small amount of energy
        • Carboxylase oxidase
          • Catalyses the binding of CO2 to ribulose bisphosphate in plants
        • Catalase
          • The breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas
        • Catalyst
          • Chemical that speeds up ROR remains unchanged and reusable at the end of the reaction
            • Catalyst features of enzymes
              • Increases ROR, specific to a reaction, unchanged at the end of the reaction, lowers the activation energy.
        • Glycogen synthase
          • the building up of glycogen by catalysing the joining together of glucose molecules
            • GLycogen is the storage carbohydrate of animals
        • Lactase
          • The breakdown of lactose into glucose and galactose monomers
      • A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
      • cofactors
        • Some enzymes work only if there is another non protein substance bound to them. No of diff subs that help control reactions at appropriate rates
        • Competitive inhibition
          • Substances that resemble the normal substrate competes with substrate for active site
            • Levels of inhibition depends on relative conc of inhibitor and substrate
        • inhibition
          • non competitive inhibitor
            • Sub that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the allosteric site, changin tertirary structure= change shape of active site= substrate cant bind to it.
        • inorganic cofactors
          • ions not permanently bound to enzyme. They help enzyme and substrate bind+ inc ROR. don't participate in reaction= noy used up/changed. binding of ion= ESC form easier. ions either changes charge distribution or shape of ESC
      • where enzymes work
        • extracellular
          • enzymes work outside the cell, catalysing hydrolysis reactions to break down macromolecules into small soluble molecules to be absorbed
            • e.g digestion
        • intracellular
          • Enzymes that work inside cells, catalysing reactions that occur in series
            • E.g photosynthesis and respiration
    • Energy needed to start a reaction
      • Enzymes reduce this by providing an active site for reactions to be easier.
        • Active site
          • Indented area on the enzyme thats complementary to the shape of the substrate
  • Reactions
    • Catabolic reactions
      • When substrates are broken down
        • Fitting into the active site put strain on bonds in the substrate= bond break easier


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