Enzymes

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  • Enzymes
    • Proteins, catalysts and enzymes
      • protein molecules are made of chains of amino acids
      • Proteins can be: muscles, hormones, antibodies, catalysts
      • Chemical reactions in cells are controlled by enzymes
        • Enzymes are biological catalysts
        • Enzymes are large proteins and its shape is vital for its function. `active site`
      • Enzymes can: build large molecules from smaller ones, change one molecule into another one, break down large molecules into smaller ones
    • Factors affecting enzyme action
      • Reactions take place faster when its warmer
        • Molecules move around more quickly, colliding more frequently
      • If the temp gets too hot the enzyme stops working because the shape changes.
        • Enzyme becomes denatured
      • Enzymes in digestion
        • Produced by specialised cells in glands and lining of the gut.
        • Involved the breakdown of large molecules
        • Amylase (a carbohydrase)- produced by salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine.
          • Catalyses the digestion of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine
        • Protease- produced by the stomach, pancreas and small intestine. Catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach.
        • Lipase- produced by pancreas and small intestine. Lipase catalyses the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) to fatty acids and glycerol.
        • Enzymes
          • Proteins, catalysts and enzymes
            • protein molecules are made of chains of amino acids
            • Proteins can be: muscles, hormones, antibodies, catalysts
            • Chemical reactions in cells are controlled by enzymes
              • Enzymes are biological catalysts
              • Enzymes are large proteins and its shape is vital for its function. `active site`
            • Enzymes can: build large molecules from smaller ones, change one molecule into another one, break down large molecules into smaller ones
          • Factors affecting enzyme action
            • Reactions take place faster when its warmer
              • Molecules move around more quickly, colliding more frequently
            • If the temp gets too hot the enzyme stops working because the shape changes.
              • Enzyme becomes denatured
            • Enzymes in digestion
              • Produced by specialised cells in glands and lining of the gut.
              • Involved the breakdown of large molecules
              • Amylase (a carbohydrase)- produced by salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine.
                • Catalyses the digestion of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine
              • Protease- produced by the stomach, pancreas and small intestine. Catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach.
              • Lipase- produced by pancreas and small intestine. Lipase catalyses the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) to fatty acids and glycerol.
          • Speeding up digestion
            • Protease- work best in acid conditions. Glands in the stomach wall produce hydrochloric acid to create a very acidic condition.
            • Amylase and lipase- work in the small intestine. Condition's are slightly alkaline.
          • Making use of enzymes
            • Biological detergents contain protease and lipase that digest food stains.
            • Proteases are used to pre-digest proteins in baby food.
            • Isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup.
            • Carbohydrates are used to convert starch into sugar syrup.
          • Advantages: can remove stains, used in medicines, cost of equipment into industries an be reduced.
          • Disadvantages: may enter waterways, can be costly to produce, denature at high temps, proteases digest wool.
    • Speeding up digestion
      • Protease- work best in acid conditions. Glands in the stomach wall produce hydrochloric acid to create a very acidic condition.
      • Amylase and lipase- work in the small intestine. Condition's are slightly alkaline.
    • Making use of enzymes
      • Biological detergents contain protease and lipase that digest food stains.
      • Proteases are used to pre-digest proteins in baby food.
      • Isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup.
      • Carbohydrates are used to convert starch into sugar syrup.
    • Advantages: can remove stains, used in medicines, cost of equipment into industries an be reduced.
    • Disadvantages: may enter waterways, can be costly to produce, denature at high temps, proteases digest wool.

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