B2 Enzymes

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  • Created by: EllenMIW
  • Created on: 31-12-15 17:45
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  • Enzymes
    • Proteins
      • Act as...
        • Structural components of tissues and muscles
        • Hormones
        • Antbodies
        • Catalysts
    • Enzymes
      • Type of protein
      • Shape is vital
        • High temperatures change shape
      • Different enzymes work best at different pH values
      • Digestive enzymes
        • Produced by specialised glands in lining of gut
        • Pass into gut
          • Catalyse breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules
      • Amylase
        • Produced in salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
        • Catalyses breakdown of starch into sugars in mouth and small intestine
      • Protease
        • Produced in stomach, pancreas and small intestine
        • Catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in stomach and small intestine
      • Lipase
        • Produced in pancreas and small intestine
        • catalyses breakdown of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol in small intestine
      • Stomach enzymes
        • Work best in acidic conditions as stomach produces hydrochloric acid
      • Small intestine enzymes
        • Work best in acidic conditions as bile neutralises stomach acid
    • Enzymes in home and industry
      • Biological detergents may contain proteases and lipases
        • More effective at low temperatures than other types of detergent
      • Proteases 'pre-digest' baby food
      • Carbohydrases convert starch into sugar syrup
      • Isomerase breaks down glucose syrup into fructose syrup, which is sweeter so less can be used for slimming foods
      • Advantages and disadvantages
        • Used to bring about reactions at normal temps and pressures that would otherwise require expensive, energy-demanding equipment
        • Can be used over and over again in industry
        • Speeds up reactions
        • Costly to produce
        • Some people are allergic to them


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