Enzymes.

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  • Enzymes.
    • Induced Fit Theory.
      • Enzymes change shape when the substrate binds to them.
        • Amino acids fit perfectly into the active site, so the catalytic reaction is effective.
          • The enzyme wraps around the substrate to distort it.
            • Forms an        enzyme/substrate complex.
              • Enzyme is not used up in reaction.
                • E+S=ES=E+P+S.
    • Properties.
      • -Globular proteins and round in shape.
      • Extracellular~ outside.
        • E.g. digestive enzymes.
      • Enzymes are biological catalysts~ speed up reactions.
        • Substrates are converted into products.
        • They work to max. rate when at optimum conditions.
    • Conditions.
      • pH.
        • Effects the attraction between the substrate and the enzyme.
        • Ionic bonds can break/change shape~ Enzyme is denatured.
        • The optimum pH is 7 for intracellular enzymes.
        • The acid range 1-6 for enzymes in the stomach.
        • The alkali range 8-12 foe enzymes in the oral cavities.
      • Temperatures
        • Increased.
          • Speeds up reactions~ more ES complexes.
          • 0-42 degree's is the optimum temperature.
            • Anything above 42 will be denatured.
        • Decreased.
          • Pyschrophiles~ love cold.
          • Thermophillic~ heat loving.
          • Below 0c enzymes are not denatured, they are inactive.
          • Enzymes become less reactive-molecular movement slowed.
          • Hypothermophillic- Organisms that can't grow below 70c
    • Inhibitors.
      • Slow's down the reaction of enzymes.
      • Competitive.
        • Stops the enzyme binding to the active site.
        • Examples~ Snake venom and HIV protease inhibitor.
      • Non-competitive.
        • Changes the shape of the active sit so the substrate cannot bind.
        • Example~ Cyanide.
  • Conditions.
    • pH.
      • Effects the attraction between the substrate and the enzyme.
      • Ionic bonds can break/change shape~ Enzyme is denatured.
      • The optimum pH is 7 for intracellular enzymes.
      • The acid range 1-6 for enzymes in the stomach.
      • The alkali range 8-12 foe enzymes in the oral cavities.
    • Temperatures
      • Increased.
        • Speeds up reactions~ more ES complexes.
        • 0-42 degree's is the optimum temperature.
          • Anything above 42 will be denatured.
      • Decreased.
        • Pyschrophiles~ love cold.
        • Thermophillic~ heat loving.
        • Below 0c enzymes are not denatured, they are inactive.
        • Enzymes become less reactive-molecular movement slowed.
        • Hypothermophillic- Organisms that can't grow below 70c

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