Enzyme Inhibitors

  • Created by: Freja
  • Created on: 22-04-21 20:42
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  • Enzyme Inhibitors
    • The use of inhibitors
      • They regulate the correct amount of products produced from the reaction.
      • They regulate enzyme control of reactions.
    • Enzyme inhibitors- any substance or molecule that slows down the rate of an enzyme- controlled reaction by affecting the enzyme molecule in some way.
    • Some inhibitors have an effect on the active site or they indirectly cause the active site to change shape.
    • Competitive Inhibitors
      • Have a similar shape of a substrate, so are comple-mentary to the active site. They block the substrate from entering the enzyme and stops the enzyme from catalysing the reaction. This means that the enzyme cannot carry out its function so it is inhibited and reduces the rate of reaction.
      • Does not change the Vmax.
      • Are usually reversible, with relatively weak bonds.
      • When the substrate concentration increases, the level of inhibition decreases.
    • Non-Competitive Inhibitors
      • The inhibitor binds to the enzyme at the allosteric site.
      • They do not compete for the active site, hence non-competitive.
      • The binding of the inhibitor causes the enzyme's tertiary structure to change, so the active site changes shape. This means that the active site is no longer complemen-tary in shape to the substrate and it cannot bind to the enzyme. The enzyme cannot perform its function, so it is inhibited.
      • Can dissociate from the allosteric site.
    • Level of Inhibition
      • Depends on the number of inhibitors present.
      • Enough inhibitors and the reaction will stop and then the substrate concentration will have no effect.
    • Inhibitors can be reversible or non-reversible.
      • Non-reversible inhibitors cannot be removed from the enzyme.
      • If they are strong covalent bonds, the inhibitors cannot be removed easily and the inhibition is irreversible.
      • If they are weaker hydrogen bonds, or weak ionic  bonds, the inhibitor can be removed and the inhibition is reversible.


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