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  • DNA and RNA
    • Basics
      • DNA: used to store genetic info, instructions organism needs to grow/develop
      • RNA: Transfers genetic info from DNA to ribosomes for translation
    • Nucleotides
      • DNA:  Pentose sugar= deoxyribose, phosphate group, bases A, T, C, G
      • RNA: Pentose sugar= ribose, phosphate group, bases A, U, C, G
      • Join to form polynucleotides
      • Join in condensation reaction between phosphate group of one nucleotide and sugar of another
      • Forms phosphodiester bond (phosphate group, two ester bonds)
      • Sugar-phosphate backbone
    • Structure of DNA
      • Two polynucleotide strands joined by hydrogen bonding between bases
      • Complementary base pairing
      • Two hydrogen bonds between A/T, three between C/G
      • Two anti parallel polynucleotide strands twist to form DNA double helix
    • Structure of RNA
      • Single polynucleotide chain
      • Shorter than most DNA polynucleotide chains
      • Contains uracil instead of thymine


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