Environmental variables and their links to the incidence of disease.

View mindmap
  • The relationship between environment variables eg climate, topography (drainage) and incidence of disease. Air quality and health. Water quality and health.
    • Climate
      • Natural  environment and disease, tend to focus on climatic conditions
      • Drought leads to crop failure which leads to famine
      • Heavy rains and tropical storms can lead to water-borne disease and respiratory infections
      • Seasonal affective disorder - Depression with a seasonal pattern usually during the winter
      • Allergies such as hay fever/ asthma being made worse on certain days
      • large scale seasonal mortality has decreased because of central heating, warmer clothes
      • Link between soft water and high levels of heat disease, High concentrations of aluminium in water have been linked to Alzheimer's, sw of England high amounts of radioactive granite has been linked to cancers
    • Topography Drainage and health
      • Many low-income countries such as in Asia high densities of people occupy the floodplains of major rivers i.e. The Yangtze. The flooding enables them to grow rice
        • Flooding accounts for about 40% of natural disasters worldwide
        • Flooding has high death tolls in LIC's. Increases rates of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, hepatitis have been described as arriving in developing nations after floods.
      • Floods contaminate fresh water supplies increasing the risk of water borne diseases. And create breeding grounds for insects.
      • Drownings, physical injury, damaged homes, disrupt medical and health services
      • Langtang valley 329 people died after a landslide of rock and soil
        • Hospitals were destroyed so injured people had to be transported further away, further dampening their chances of survival
      • Haitian earthquake low vaccine levels, 200000 people with HIV/AIDS refugee camps, cholera spread quickly through refugee camps 700000 cases and 8500 deaths.
    • Air Quality and health
      • Air pollution, affects developing and developed nations. According to the WHO air pollution is now the largest environmental health risk.
      • polluted air affects the respiratory and cardiovascular system. 3.7mil deaths world wide in 2012 - 88% in developing countries
      • Delhi had the dirtiest atmosphere.
      • what needs to be done: cleaner transport, government policies and investment, energy efficient housing, better waste management, reducing emissions.
      • indoor cooking and heating produce harmful pollutants. Smoking increases risk of respiratory infections. 2014 WHO said that 4.3 million deaths were attributed to household pollution. LIC'S burn wood inside breathing in all the fumes, women and children.
    • Water quality and health
      • Water pollution and poor quality have important impact on health and leads to many diseases.
      • WHO 2 million deaths annually - unsafe water, poor water sanitation and hygiene. Caused by water resource development and management.
      • Diarrhoeal diseases, parasite worms, malaria(vectors),cancer, tooth/skeleton damage. Human sewage
      • Most diseases related to water quality and supply are preventable and affordable. Protect water quality, treating and safely storing it.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all population and environment resources »