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  • Topic 8
    • Exothermic
      • Heat transfers to the surroundings
      • Overall change in enthalpy is negative
    • Endothermic
      • Heat transfers from the surroundings into the system
      • Overall change in enthalpy is positive
    • Standard enthalpy of combustion
      • When one mole of a substance is completely burnt in oxygen in standard conditions
      • To find the enthalpy change of combustion in a liquid, a known mass is burned and used to heat a known volume of water
      • Q= mc   T
    • Standard enthalpy of neutralization
      • One mole of water is produced by neutralisation of an acid and an alkali
      • Measure temperature of acid of alkali before and after mixing them
    • Standard enthalpy of formation
      • When one mole of a substance is formed from its elements in standard states
    • Hess's law
      • enthalpy change os a reaction of the path taken in converting  reactants into products providing the initial and final conditions are the same in each case
      • Method: 1- reverse second equation and then add to the first
    • Bond enthalpy
      • Bond breaking - bond making = enthalpy change of reaction


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