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  • English Literature
    • Renaissance  1485-1603
      • Context/ Typicalities
        • Upbeat/ Romantic
        • Prevelence of the Supernatural
        • Traditional forms- Odes/ Sonnets/ Lyrics
        • Wit/ Intelligence/ Argumentative
        • Intellectual and Geographical exploration
          • Wit/ Intelligence/ Argumentative
          • Spanish Armada
        • Courtly love
        • Pastoral imagery
          • Ornate description
        • Woman's cruelty
          • Placed on pedestal
        • Ornate description
        • Stock characters
          • Main characters= rich/ Comedic characters= poor- love is an upper class privaledge
        • Main characters= rich/ Comedic characters= poor- love is an upper class privaledge
        • Mediterranean setting- excuses unkempt behaviour
        • Humanistic- move away from purely religious art
          • Tragedy due to tragic flaw in protagonist
      • Poetry
        • The Passionate Shepherd to His Love- Marlow
          • Ballad
            • Structured, neat continuity through poem
                • Pastoral imagery
                • Woman unobtainable
          • Shepherd and Nymph
            • Pastoral imagery
            • Fairy-tale atmosphere
                • Woman unobtainable
          • 'Come live with me and be my Love'
            • Refrain
              • Continued courtly romantic declaration
              • Built anticipation of unanswered question
              • Structured, neat continuity through poem
          • Sonnet 130- Shakespeare
            • 'My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun'
              • Subversion of typical romance
                • Honest
                • Sonnet form
                • Natural imagery
              • Possessive pronoun
            • 'If snow be white, black wires grow on her head'
              • Lack of innocence/ virginity- disrespectful!
        • Drama
          • Romeo and Juliet
            • 'Believe me, love, it was the nightingale'
              • Pastoral imagery
              • Caesuras- fragmented structure- feeling of breathless excitement
          • Taming of the Shrew
            • Verse- fast paced battle of wits
              • 'I swear I'll cuff you if you strike again'
                • Interrupts pace and rhythm
            • Ideal renaissance woman
              • 'Mould'
              • Katherina dehumanized
                • 'Wild-cat'
                • Extended metaophre of buzzard training
      • Revenge Tragedy 1580s-1640s
        • Context
          • Upper class
          • Foreign setting
          • Corrupt religion
          • Corrupt society
          • Tragic flaw in protagonist
          • Dark atmosphere
        • Duchess of Malfi- Webster
          • 'There is a saucy and ambitious devil is dancing in this circle'
            • Duchess compared to devil due to masculine attitude
            • Religious fear of re-marrying
            • Circle- eternity, contrast to reality
            • Using old ring- uncomfortable- elicit relationship
              • Twisted and elicit love
                • Context
                  • Upper class
                  • Foreign setting
                  • Corrupt religion
                  • Corrupt society
                  • Tragic flaw in protagonist
                  • Dark atmosphere
            • Foreshadowing- dark undertones
            • Not given name, distance/ authority
            • Incest/ Unrequited love
          • Tis Pity she's a Whore
            • Incestuous
              • 'Doomed my death'
                • Alliteration of aggressive consonant
                • Forshadowing
                • Hyperbolic
          • The Changeling
            • Unrequited love
            • 'Our eyes are sentinels to our judgements'
              • Rational approach
            • 'I love you dearly'
              • Emphasized through break in rhythm of verse- traditionally romantic form
              • Contrast
                • 'Our eyes are sentinels to our judgements'
                  • Rational approach
        • Restoration Comedy 1603-1667
          • Context
            • Reaction to end of 18 years of puritanical society
            • Sexual explicitness
            • Rakish aristocratic ethos
            • Socially diverse audience
            • Fashion of town compared to country
            • Satirical slant
            • Game of love
            • First appearance of woman actors
          • The Way of the World- Congreve
            • 'Wife,spouse,my dear, joy, jewel, love, sweetheart and the rest of that can't which men and their wives are so fulsomely familiar'
              • Refuses to be classed as a possession
              • Rejection of traditional courty love
                • Satirical slant
              • Strong women!
                • First appearance of woman actors
              • Listing, exaggerated
              • Woman dominates dialogue
        • Metaphysical Poetry 1603-1667
          • Context
            • Reference to classical and european literature
            • Shortness of life
            • Transcience of beauty
            • Hybrid structures/ forms
            • Energy and Vitality
            • Sounds intelligent- elaborate and extended metaphors/ conceit
          • The Anniversary- Dunne
            • Conceit of  'royal imagery- Aristocratic love
              • Sounds intelligent- elaborate and extended metaphors/ conceit
          • Eloisa to Abelard- Pope
            • Seperation
            • Structured rhyme and rhythm reflect constraint and refinement of monestary
            • 'Statues learned to weep'
              • Personnification- her becoming stone
          • To His Coy Mistress
            • 'Thou by the Indian Ganges' side'
              • Geographic exploration
                • Typical romantic, natural exotic beauty
            • The Sun Rising- Donne
              • Personnification of Sun
                • Ptolemaic Universe theory- own arrangance
                • Prevelnce and omnipotence of nature
          • Romantic Poetry 1780-1830
            • Context
              • Hyperbolic, over-dramatic
                • Metaphore, dramatic
              • Turned against popular styles of the past
                • Subverted expectation
              • Politics and religion
              • Social fueds, battle of the sexes, family riffs
            • Don Juan- Byron
              • Eponymous character in title reflects traditional tragic hero
                • Subverted expectation
              • Traditional form
                • Broken by 'How beautiful she look'd!'
                  • Caesura- excited, breathless
              • 'The precipice she stood on was immence'
                • Metaphore, dramatic
                • Power of nature
              • Illicit love
          • 18th Century Novel
            • Realism
            • Extensive, detailed description
            • Complexity of plot and characters
            • Increase in public reading
            • Industrial revolution
              • Middle class hungry for knowledge
            • Patriotism
            • Rationalism
            • Romanticism- rebellion against prudish society under guise of romanticism
            • Tom Jones-Fielding
              • Contrast between Mrs Water's artillary of love and Tom's obliviousnessness
                • 'Bubbling of some bottled ale'
                  • jarring alliterative onomatopoeia
                • 'So soft, so sweet, so tender'
                  • Flowing sibilance and list
                • 'Fruits of her victory'
          • Regency Period 1790-1830
            • Context
              • Contrast between seriously religious nature of George III to the more carefree and spendthrift nature of the regent
              • Elegance, refinement, manners , class
            • Pride and Prejudice- Austen
              • 'In vain I have struggled'
                • Importance of social class
                • Self-importance
                • Lizzie rejects this- socially shocking - relationship equal
              • Pragmatic proposal of Mr Collins
                • 'Satate my reasons for amrrying'
          • Victorian 1833-1903
            • Context
              • Intraindustrial revolution
              • Modern twist on Shakespeare/ fairytales
              • Conservative views on morality and roles of women
              • Prudish relucatnce to express love or passion- subtle undercurrents
              • Women writers!
              • Marxism- extremes of class- oppression of proletariat
            • Poetry
              • How do I love thee?- Browing
                • Anaphra of 'I love thee'
                  • Breathless excitement, repeated, persistent- builds pace
                • 'How dio I love thee?'
                  • Caesura/ rhetorical opening- sounds casual
                    • Realism
            • Prose
              • Jane Eyre- Bronte
                • Pathetic Fallacy- dark/cold
                • Metaphore of house- big/ empty/ spooky
                • 'Wild roses'- juxtaposition of traditional romantic imagery against harsh background
            • Drama
              • Importance of Being Earnest- Wilde
                • Mockery of formalities of upper class
                  • Marxism
                • 'Admirable oppertunity'
                  • Mockery of formalities of upper class
                    • Marxism
                • 'You know what I've got to say to you'
                  • Awkward, clumsy dialogue
              • Doll's House- Ibsen
                • Repetition of animal imagery- diminished woman
                  • Compared to bird trapped in cage
                • Doll's House- toy- not taken seriously
          • Modern 1920-1960
            • Context
              • 'Make it New!'- Ezra Pound
                • Break away from past tradition
              • Reaction to WW1-
                • Industrial-isation
                • Urbanisation
              • emotional enlightenment rejected
                • Rational-isation
              • Individual interpretation
              • Self concious
              • Rejection of realism
                • Subversion and adoptation of more complex forms and structures
                  • Stream of conciousness
                • Ambiguous
              • Topical/ controversy
              • Intertextuality
            • Prose
              • Oranges are not the only fruit- Winterson
                • Homoexual love
                • Oranges extended metophore
                  • Skewed image of perfection in commonality
                    • Contrast to 'rough brown pebble'
                • Cynisism towards religion- uninterested in view of priest
                  • 'Seven ripe oranges had just fell onto the windowsill'
                    • Seven deadly sins- doesn't pay attention to this stigma
            • Poetry
              • A Marriage- Blumenthal
                • Ceasura/ enjambement used to elongate lines and slow pace- emphasize exhaustion
                • Alliteration ('Relief of respite') and enjambment speeds up pace- excitement and vitality
                • Experimentation of forms to directly express feeling
                    • my sweet old etcetera- e. e. cummings
                      • Repeated non-committal blank of 'etcetera'
                        • Interpretation of reader
                        • Disconnected, cynical edge to glory of war
                      • Romance not mentioned until last line- rationalism and distance
              • my sweet old etcetera- e. e. cummings
                • Repeated non-committal blank of 'etcetera'
                  • Interpretation of reader
                  • Disconnected, cynical edge to glory of war
                • Romance not mentioned until last line- rationalism and distance
              • Pygmalian's Bride- Carol Ann Duffy
                • 'Stone-deaf shells'
                  • Conceit of stone- confined in her own head
                    • Relative security of objectfing self
                    • Lack of individual identity/ anonymity
                • Abusive relationship
                • Subversion of Greek mythology
            • Drama
              • The Glass Menagerie- Williams
                • 'This is a memory play'
                  • Direct address- break 4th wall
                  • Distorted reality through morphed structure
                • 'Stumble-John'
                  • Her over-involvement compared to his
                    • Broken glass animal in her pocket represents fragmented realism
        • Subversion of typical romance
          • Honest
          • Sonnet form
          • Natural imagery

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