English Language Occupational Theorists

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  • Occupational Theorists
    • John Swales (2011) Discourse communities
      • 1) members recognise discourse
      • 2) specific lexis
      • 3) genre's to communicate aims
      • 4) information & feedback
      • 5) mechanisms of communication
      • 6) common goals
    • Janet Holmes (2006) Relationships of Practise
      • "doing genders" in the work place
      • normal should = no marked terms & good work behaviour
    • Hornyak (1994) personal talk
      • shift from work talk to personal talk initiated by highest ranking person
    • Herbert & Straight (1989) compliments
      • compliments on work tend to flow from higher ranking to lower ranking
    • Drew & Heritage (1992) workplace/ institutional talk
      • different to everyday talk
      • turn taking, goal orientated & contains specific lexis
    • Wenger Communities of Practise
      • groups who share passion or concern for what they - learn to do it better - interact regularly
    • Almut Koester Phatic Talk
      • almost as important as getting the job done
      • build interpersonal relations
    • Herring (1992) Workplace emails
      • looked at 5 women & 30 men
      • males messages twice as long & men dominating tone, women personal tone
    • Holmes (1998) male & female managers
      • women = negotiate & ensure agreement
      • men = plough through agendas
    • Holmes & Marra (2002-2005) humour in the workplace
      • women use just as much humour as men
      • controls discourse + subordinates & contests superiors
    • Eakins & Eakins (1976) university meetings
      • men spoke for 11-17 seconds
      • women spoke for 3-10 seconds
    • Edelsky (1981) Faculty Meetings
      • men = took longer turns, did more joking, directing & soliciting responsibilities
      • in free for alls men & women spoke equally
    • Tracey & Einsberg Work place role play
      • women = showed more concern in superior roles
      • men = showed more concern when criticising in subordinate roles
    • Candace West (1984) Powerless language
      • doctor patient conversations
      • doctor usually interrupts patients UNLESS doctor= women + patient = white man, then patient would interrupt doctor
    • Nicola Woods (1989) Powerless language
      • recorded conversations between colleges of different occupational status'
        • even when women were of higher status, men still dominated

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