England In 1558

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  • England in 1558
    • Government on Elizabeth's accession
      • The court= advised the monarch & helped display her wealth & power
      • Justices of the Peace= keep law and order
      • Lord Lieutenants= govern English countries and raise local militia
      • Privy Council= monitor government, oversaw law & order & security of country
      • Parliament= advise monarch (made up of house of lord and commons)
    • challenges at home: financial weekness
      • the crown was in debt
      • Elizabeth needed money to remain secure on the throne
      • raise money
        • increase rent
        • taxes
          • made Elizabeth unpopular
          • Queen could convene with parliament
        • profits of justice
        • loans
      • Elizabeth did not raise taxes but hoarded income & sold crown lands
        • crown was out of debt (1574)
    • Society on Elizabeth's accession
      • society based on inequality and hierachy
      • countryside
        • the nobility
        • gentry
        • yeomans
        • tenant farmers
        • poor
        • vagrants
      • Towns
        • Merchants
        • professionals
        • Business owners
        • craftsmen
        • labourers and unemployed
      • people owed respect & obedience to those above them
      • those above had a duty of care for those below them
    • Virgin Queen
      • legitimacy, gender and marriage
        • problems
          • she was young (21)
          • government needed money
          • legitimacy was doubted (father's marriage not accepted)
          • Elizabeth was unmarried (unusual)
          • marriage
            • marrying protestant anger catholics
            • marrying catholic anger protestants
            • could involve England in expensive wars (crown in debts)
        • Elizabeth was expected to marry= reduce power (husband govern)
        • relied on government before decisions were made
      • character and strengths
        • Elizabeth was confident and charismatic
        • Elizabeth was resilient
        • Elizabeth was well educated
        • Elizabeth understood politics
        • Elizabeth reinvented the role of a monarch
        • the propaganda shown made her seem strong and legitimate
    • Challenges abroad: France, Scotland and Spain
      • challenges
        • lost last territory (Calais) to France (Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis)
        • France had more power with the chance of a catholic invasion (Mary married to French king)
        • France had alliance with Scotland (Auld Alliance)
        • war was expensive (couldn't afford war with France, Scotland or Spain)
        • French no longer at war (more money for France, war with Spain &England likely
      • signed Peace of Troyes to avoid war with france
      • Mary Queen of Scots in custody (no threat from Scotland)

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