Physics 1.1-9

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  • Energy Transfer By Heating
    • Conduction
      • Conduction in a metal is mainly due to free electrons transferring energy inside the metal
      • Materials such as wool and fibreglass are good insulators
      • Non-metals are poor conductors because they do not contain free electrons
      • Metals are the best conductors
    • Specific Heat Capacity
      • The rate of temperature change in a substance when heated depends on the energy transferred to it, its mass and its specific heat capacity
      • The greater the mass of an object, the more slowly its temperature increases when it is heated
    • States of Matter
      • The particles in a liquid move about at random and are in contact with each other
      • The particles in a solid are held next to each other, vibrating in their fixed positions
      • The particles in a gas move about randomly and are much farther apart than particles in a solid or liquid
      • Flow, shape, volume and density are the properties used to describe each state of matter
    • Heating and Insulated Buildings
      • U-values tell us how much energy per second passes through different materials. The lower the U-value the better the material is as an insulator
      • The rate of energy transfer to or from our homes can be reduced
      • Solar heating panels don't  use fuel to heat water but they are expensive to buy and install
    • Convection
      • Convection is the circulation of a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by heating it
      • Heating a liquid or a gas makes it less dense so it rises and causes circulation
      • Convection takes place only in liquids and gases (fluids)
    • Energy Transfer by Design
      • The rate of energy transfer to or from an object depends on:
        • The materials the object is in contact with
        • The shape, size and type of material of the object
        • The temperature difference between the object and its surroundings
    • Surfaces and Radiation
      • Dark, matt surfaces emit infrared radiation more quickly than light, shiny surfaces
      • Dark, matt surfaces absorb infrared radiation more quickly than light, shiny surfaces
      • Light, shiny surfaces reflect  more infrared radiation than dark, matt surfaces
    • Infrared Radiation
      • All objects emit infrared radiation
      • Infrared red radiation is energy transfer by electromagnetic waves
      • The hotter an object is the more infrared radiation it emits in a given time
    • Evaporation and Condensation
      • Condensation is when a gas turns into a liquid
      • Evaporation is when a liquid turns into a gas

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