energy transfer by heating

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  • energy transfer by heating
    • Infrared radiation
      • infrared radiation is energy transfer by electromagnetic waves
      • all objects emit infrared radiation
      • the hotter an object is the more infrared radiation it emits in a given time
    • evaporation and condensation
      • evaporation is when a liquid turns to gas
      • condensation is when a gas turns into a liquid
      • cooling by evaporation of a liquid is due to the faster moving molecules escaping from the liquid
      • evaporation can be increased by increasing the surface area of a liquid, increasing the temperature  or by creating a draught of air
    • states of matter
      • flow, shape, volume and density are the properties used to describe each state
      • the particles in a solid are held next to each other in fixed positions
      • the particles in a liquid move about at random and are in contact with each other
      • the particles in a gas move about randomly and are much further apart than particles in a solid or liquid
    • conduction
      • metals are the best conductors of energy
      • materials such as wool and fiberglass are the best insulators
      • conduction of energy in a metal is due to free electrons transferring energy inside the metal
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    • convection
      • convection is the circulation of a fluid caused by heating it
      • convection takes place only in liquids and gasses
      • heating a liquid or gas makes it less dense so it rises
    • energy transfer by design
      • the rate of energy transferred to an object depends on : size , material, temperature
    • specific heat capacity
      • the greater the mass of an object the more slowly its temperature increases when it is heated
      • the rate of the temperature change of a substance when it is heated depends on : energy supplied to it, its mass , the shc
      • storage heaters use off peak electricity to store energy in special bricks
    • heating and insulating buildings
      • energy transfer from our homes can be reduced by fitting loft insulation, cavities, double glazing and aluminium behind radiators
      • uvalues tells us how much energy per second passes through different materials
      • solar heating panels do not use fuel to heat water but they are expensive to buy and install
    • surfaces and radiation
      • Dark matt surfaces absorb more infrared radiation that light shiny surfaces
      • dark matt surfaces emit more infrared radiation that light shiny surfaces
      • light shiny surfaces reflect more infrared radiation than dark matt surfaces


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