Energy Transfer By Heating

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  • Energy Transfer by Heating
    • Infrared Radiation
      • The hotter and object is, the more infrared radiation it gives out in a given time.
      • Infrared radiation is a type of electromagnetic radiation that comes from the Sun.
      • All objects emit infrared radiation.
    • Surfaces and Radiation
      • Dark, matt surfaces emit more infrared radiation than light, shiny surfaces.
      • Dark, matt surfaces absorb more infrared raditation than light, shiny surfaces.
      • Light, shiny surfaces reflect more infrared raditation than dark, matt surfaces.
    • States of Matter
      • Flow, shape, volume and density are the properties used to describe each state of matter.
      • The particles in a solid are held next to each other in fixed positions.
      • The particles in a liquid move about at random, and are in contact with each other.
      • The particles in a gas move about randomly, and are much further apart than particles in a solid or liquid.
    • Conduction
      • Metals are the best conductors of energy.
      • Materials, such as fibre glass and wool, are the best insulators/
      • Conduction of energy in a metal is due to, mainly, free electrons transferring energy inside the metal.
      • Non-metals are poor conductirs because they do not contain free electrons.
    • Convection
      • Convection is the circulation of a fluid, caused by it being heated.
      • Convection takes place in liquids and gases only.
      • Heating a liquid or a gas makes it less dense, so it rises and causes circulation.
    • Evaporation and Condensation
      • Evaporation is when a liquid turns into a gas.
      • Condensation is when a gas turns into a liquid.
      • Cooling by evaporation can be increased by increasing the surface area of the liquid, the liquid's temperature, or by passing a breeze across the liquid's surface.
      • Condensation on a surface can be increased by increasing the surface area, or by reducing the temperature.
    • Specific Heat Capacity
      • The greater the mass of an object, the more slowly its temperature increases when it is heated.
      • Storage heaters use off-peak electricity to store energy in bricks.
      • The rate of temperature change of a substance when it is heated depends on:
        • The energy supplies to it.
        • Its mass.
        • Its specific heat capacity.
    • Heating and Insulating Buildings
      • U-values tell us how much energy per second passes through different materials.
      • Solar heating panels use fuel to heat water, but they are expensive to buy and install.
      • Energy transfer from our homes can be reduced by fitting:
        • Loft insulation.
        • Cavity wall insulation.
        • Double glazing.

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