Energy Sustainability

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Energy Sustainability
    • Supply problems
      • Economic
        • Believe that we have reached peak oil
        • Fossil fuels are finite and demand is increasing
        • Fuel wood is still a major source of energy in places
      • Environmental
        • Fuel wood is burnt in enclosed environments - lung cancer (sub saharan africa)
        • Global environment can't stand the level of carbon emissions
        • Carbon capture is expensive and in it's infancy.
          • March 2010 Tokyo will start storing CO2 under the seabed at the rate of 100,000 tons per year. No word on final program costs, but in 2009, ¥3.3 billion ($35 million) has been allocated to the project
        • A lot of alternatives have bad impilications.
          • E.G. Nuclear energy
            • Requires larger capital cost because of emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage systems
            • Requires resolution of the long-term high level waste storage issue in most countries
            • Potential nuclear proliferation issue 
      • Political
        • Hardly any country is self- sufficient
          • Danish island Samso have achieved this - wind technology
        • Most governments worry about depending on sources from other countries in case political disputes threaten supplies.
          • The fact that the UK supply of gas from the North Sea peaked in 2001 and is now falling rapidly is well known
            • The extraction rate once allowed the UK to be a leading exporter whilst also meeting growing local demand, extraction rates are now falling such that the country became a net importer in 2005 and some expect imports to account for 80% of gas supply as soon as 2014/15 The UK uses approximately 103 billion cubic meters of gas per year (bcm), more than any other country in Europe.
      • Technological
        • There can be ways of producing power to meet future demands but most of the technology needed has yet to be developed.
          • Hydrogen car kits have become increasingly in demand recently with the sky rocketing costs of gasoline and the hopes of seeing them decrease becoming less and less realistic each day.
    • Energy demand
      • Economic
        • An increased dependence on energy imports means that the cost and supply of a vital resource for our economy slips further and further out of our control. Moreover, we may become more exposed to the results of political instability in the regions where fossil fuels are produced.
        • Economic growth depends on energy, leisure and social activities very often require energy
        • Underlying all these are needs for transport, cooking, heating, air conditioning and lighting
        • All economies are increasing their demands for energy. This is especially true of newly emerging economies, especially the very large countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) where energy for manufacturing is the main growth.
        • The most reliable predictions indicate that by 2050, the world's population will have nearly doubled from its present level. It will rise from around 6 billion to about 10 billion people. Most of this growth, and much of the increase in energy consumption, will occur in LEDCs.
      • Social -  In developed economies, as well as getting to and from work, people want to travel to see friends, enjoy pastimes and go on holidays.
      • Technological
        • New car registrations are expected to increase by 4.7% globally in 2010, after contracting by 14% in 2009. Unsaturated markets will drive demand, led by the appetite for car ownership in the three biggest emerging economies—China, India and Brazil.
        • Growing international trade has led to the transport of goods by air, sea and all forms of land transport.
        • The growth of maritime transport is strongly correlated with the growth of international trade. An increase of 3,8% in world output led to a strong increase in world seaborne trade in 2004. In 2004, global maritime transport reached 6,76 billion tons, meaning a growth rate of 4,3%.
  • There can be ways of producing power to meet future demands but most of the technology needed has yet to be developed.
    • Hydrogen car kits have become increasingly in demand recently with the sky rocketing costs of gasoline and the hopes of seeing them decrease becoming less and less realistic each day.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Energy sources and security resources »