Energy Pathways

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  • Energy Pathways
    • What are energy pathways?
      • the routes along which energy sources move from producer to consumer
        • sea routes of tankers carrying oil and gas
        • pipelines
        • electricity power lines
      • oil
        • Middle East exports around 15,000 barrels per day
          • mainly to Japan, Europe and China
        • Europe exports just 408 barrels to north America
        • Russia supplies majority to Europe, but some to China
      • Gas
        • pathways tend to be localised and regional
        • traditionally transported through pipelines
          • changing to shipping gas in tankers as liquefied gas
            • political reasons
        • trans-Siberian pipeline
          • main conveyor of Russian natural gas
            • operated by Gazprom
      • Coal
        • pathways as far apart as Australia and Poland
        • less coal is moved than oil and gas
        • prospects of greater movement of coal
          • less threatened by geopolitics
    • factors affecting risk of disruption
      • geopolitical tensions between countries
        • Ukraine and Russia
      • War
        • Gulf War
        • Iraq War
          • destruction of oil wells during Iraq war 
            • consumed 6 million barrels of oil a day for 8 months
      • Strikes by energy workers
      • damaged infrastructure- natural disasters
        • Hurricane Katrina
          • affected oil production and refining in Gulf of Mexico
          • oil prices increased
      • disintegration of infrastructure
        • pipelines
      • Terrorism

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