Physics P3 Energy on the Move

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  • Created by: A.P
  • Created on: 20-01-13 11:26
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  • Energy on the Move
    • Kinetic Energy
      • The braking distance of a car increases with increasing speed, but not proportionally.
        • Kinetic Energy = 1/2 x Mass x Velocity Squared
        • When a car stops its kinetic energy changes into heat in the brakes, tyres and road.
          • Work Done by Brakes = Loss in Kinetic Energy
          • Braking Force x Braking Distance = Loss in Kinetic Energy
          • When the speed of the car doubles, the kinetic energy and braking distance quadruple. This is why there are speed limits and penalties for drivers who exceed them.
    • Fuel
      • Fuel consumption data are based on ideal road conditions for a car driven at a steady speed in urban and non-urban conditions.
      • Factors that affect the fuel consumption of a car are...
        • ...the amount of energy required to increase its kinetic energy.
          • ...the amount of energy required for it to do work against friction.
            • ...its speed.
              • it is driven, such as excessive acceleration and deceleration, constant braking and speed changes.
                • ...road conditions, such as a rough surface.
    • Electrically Powered Cars
      • Electric cars are battery driven or solar-powered.
        • The battery takes up a lot of room.
          • They have limited range before recharging.
            • They are expensive to buy, but the cost or recharging is low.
              • Solar powered cars rely on the Sun shining and need back-up batteries.
      • Exhaust fumes from petrol-ruelled cars cause serious pollution in towns and cities.
        • Battery-driven cars do not pollute the local environment, but their batteries need to be recharged. Recharging uses electricity from a power station. Power stations pollute the local atmosphere and cause acid rainl
          • Solar-powered cars do not produce any carbon dioxide emissions.
          • Biofuels may reduce carbon dioxide emissions but this is not certain because deforestation leads to an increase in carbon dioxide levels.


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