Energy from respiration

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  • Energy in respiration
    • Aerobic respiration
      • Equation: glucose + O2 - Co2 + water (+ energy)
      • The process uses glucose and oxygen to release energy
        • Carbon dioxide and water are produced as waste products
      • The process takes place in the mitochondria and are controlled by enzymes
      • energy released may be used by organisms to:
        • build larger molecules from smaller ones
        • enable muscle contraction in animals
        • maintain a constant body temp in mammals/birds
        • build sugars, nitrate & other nutrients into amino acids and then proteins in plants
    • Effect of exercise on the body
      • muscles need more energy so they can contract
      • the rate at which oxygen and glucose reach muscle cells for aerobic respiration needs to increase
      • extra waste Co2 needs to be removed
      • heart rate increases and blood vessels dilate- this allows more blood to reach muscles
      • breathing rate and the depth of each breath increase- allowing greater uptake of O2 and release of Co2
      • muscles store glucose as glycogen- glycogen is converted back to glucose for use during exercise
    • Anaerobic respiration
      • if you use muscles over a long period then they will get fatigued
        • when muscles can't get enough oxygen for aerobic respiration they respire anaerobically
      • lactic acid is produced because glucose isn't completely broken down
        • lactic acid build up causes muscle fatigue
          • blood flow removes lactic acid
      • less energy is released from glucose

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