Energy and ATP

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  • Energy and ATP
    • How ATP Stores Energy
      • Equation
        • ATP + (H2O)   -> ADP+ Pi+ E
          • Adenosine triphosphate + water --> Adenosine diphosphate + Inorganic Phosphate + Energy
      • Hydrolysis
        • Water is used to convert ATP to ADP, this is known as a hydrolysis reaction
      • ATP
        • Adenosine Triphosphate
        • The bonds between the phospate groups are unstable and as a result have a low activastion energy
        • Has three phosphate groups
        • The bonds between the phosphates are easily brocken
        • When the bonds are brocken they realse alot of energy
        • Usually in living cells only the terminal phosphate is removed
    • Synthesis Of ATP
      • As water is removed in the process of of Reforming ATP , this is known as a condensation reaction
      • The synthesis of ATP from ADP involves the addition of a Phosphate molecule to ADP which occurs in three ways:
        • 2) OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORY-LATION
          • This takes place in the mitochondria of a plant and animal cell during the process of electron transport
        • 1) PHOTOPHOSP-HORYLATION
          • Takes place in the chlorophyll- Containing Plant cells during photosynthesis.
            • ATP is synthesised using energy released during the transfer of electrons along a chain of electron carrier molecules in either the Chloroplasts of the mitochondria
              • This takes place in the mitochondria of a plant and animal cell during the process of electron transport
        • 3) SUBSTRATE- LEVEL PHOSPHORYL-ATION
          • This occurs in plant and animal cells when phosphate groups are transferred from donor molecules to ADP to make ATP. E.G. In the formation of Pyruvate at the end of glycolysis
      • The conversion of ATP to ADP is a reversible reaction.
        • As a result of this energy can be used to add an inorganic phosphate to ADP to reform ATP
    • What is Energy and why do organisms need energy?
      • Whaqt is Energy?
        • Energy is defined as being 'the ability to do work.
        • Energy cannot be created or destroyed
        • Energy Takes a variety of diffrent forms for example light heat sound electrical magnetic and atomic energy etc.
        • Energy can be changed from one form of energy to another form of energy
        • Energy is measured in Joules (J)
      • Why do organisms Need Energy?
        • MAINTENECE REPAIR AND DEVISION- of celss and of organelles within the celss.
        • ACTIVE TRANSPORT- of ions and molecules against a concentration gradient across plasma membranes.
        • PRODUCTION OF SUBSTANCES- used within the organism, for example, enzymes and hormones.
        • MOVEMENT- Both within organisms (Blood circulation etc) or of the organism itself (locomotion)
        • MAINTENECE AND BODY TEMPERATURE- in birds and mamels. These organisms are endothermic and need energy to replace that lost as heat to the environment
        • METABOLISM- All reactions that take place in living organisms involve energy
      • Energy and Metabolism
        • The flow of energy through living systems occur in three stages
          • 2) The chemical energy from photosynthesis, in the form of organic molecules, is converted into ATP during respiration in all cells
          • 1)  Light energy from the sun is converted by plants into chemical energy during photosynthesis
          • 3) ATP is used by cells to perform useful work.
    • Roles of ATP
      • ATP is an Immediate energy resourse
        • As a result of this Cells do not store large quantities of ATP
        • ATP is rapidly reformed from ADPand inorganic phosphate (Pi)
      • ATP is a better immediate energy resourse because....
        • The hydrolysos of ATP to ADP is a single reaction that releleases immediate energy.
          • The brack down of glucose is a long series of reactions and therefore the energy is release takes longer.
        • Each ATP molecule releases less energy than each glucose molecule.
          • The Energy for reactions is therefore realeased in smaller, more controlled/ managable quantities rather than much greater.
      • ATP cannont be stored
        • ATP has to be continuously made withi the mitochondria of the cells that need it
          • Cells, Such as muscle fibres and the epithelium of the small intestine, which require energy for movement and active transport respectively, posses many large mitochondria.
      • ATP is the sourse of energy for....
        • Active Transport
          • ATP provides the energy to change the shape of carrier proteins in plasma membranes
            • This allows molecules or ions to be moved against a concentration gradient.
        • Movement
          • ATP provides the energy for musicle contraction
            • ATP provides the energy for the filaments of muscle to slide past one another and therefore shorten the overall muscle lenght of the fibre
        • Seretion
          • ATP is needed to form lysosomes nesecasry for the secretion of cell products.
        • Metabolic processes
          • ATP provides the energy needed to build up macromolecules from their base unit
            • For example....
              • Polypeptide synthesis from amino acids
              • Polysaccharide synthesis from monosaccharides
              • DNA/RNA synthesis from nucleotides
        • Activation of molecules
          • When a phosphate molecule is transfered from ATP to another molecule it makes it more reactive and so lowers the activation energy of that molecuile.
            • ATP therefore allows enzyme-catalysed reactions to occur more readily.
              • For example The addition of phosphate to glucose molecules at the start of Glycolysis
  • ATP is a better immediate energy resourse because....
    • The hydrolysos of ATP to ADP is a single reaction that releleases immediate energy.
      • The brack down of glucose is a long series of reactions and therefore the energy is release takes longer.
    • Each ATP molecule releases less energy than each glucose molecule.
      • The Energy for reactions is therefore realeased in smaller, more controlled/ managable quantities rather than much greater.

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