Energy Security - summary and case studies

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  • Energy Security
    • 1. TO WHAT EXTENT IS THE WORLD ENERGY SECURE AT PRESENT
      • different types of energysources
        • recyclable
          • can be used repeatedly if carefully managed
            • biomass
              • large land area is needed, this can take away land for crops or habitats
            • nuclear (when fuel is reprocessed)
              • unresolved issues such as storing waste
        • renewable
          • Infinite resources
            • solar
            • wind
            • geothermal
            • wave
            • These may only be appropriate in some areas
              • The Uk has high renewable potential in terms of wind
              • Geothermal  facilities make up 25% of Icelands energy
            • Also take time to become carbon neutral
            • Not In My Back Yard Issues
        • Non-renewable
          • finite resources, will run out
            • These all have environmental impacts during extraction and use
        • security will be best if an 'energy mix' is used
      • Access to energy
        • Domestic reserves are a matter of geological history and international boundaries
          • This means some countries are in surplus whilst others are in deficit
            • 40% of the World rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating
            • 2 billion people have no access to electricity
            • Russia holds 25% of global gas reserves
            • The Middle East holds 40% of global gas reserves
              • 56% of the Oil
          • However domestic supplies aren't always that important
            • Terms of trade
            • The UK still has coal reserves however it became cheaper to import from elsewhere than extract
        • depends on technology
        • depends on attitudes
        • depends on cost
      • demand for energy
        • Global demand doubled between 1960 and 1980
          • industrialisation
          • growth of the middle class
        • Likely to increase in the future
          • BRICS
    • 2. THE IMPACTS OF ENERGY INSECURITY
      • Disruption along energy pathways
        • Natural disasters
        • priced payment disputes
        • piracy/terrorism
          • The Eastern Siberian Pacific Ocean Pipeline goes through the Straits of Malacca
        • Supply runs out
        • Political disputes between supplier and consumer
          • Russia cut off supplies to the Ukraine in 2008, when Ukraine were thinking about joining NATO
            • Disrupted other countries Russia supplies 30% f European gas
      • Development of AlternativeSources
        • Tar Sands
          • Large supplies in Canada and Venezuela
            • Could meet up to 16% of North Americas needs by 2030
            • Oil is vital for Canadian economy
          • $15 per barrel, compared to $2 for conventional oil
          • Deforestation and destructionhabitats
          • 3:1 water usage
        • Fracking
          • Resources are found all over the World
          • Could lower gas prices by 1/3 if exploited
          • risk of contamination of water supplies
            • in North Dakota water has become flammable
        • Oil supplies in the Arctic
          • 30% of global undiscovered natural gas, 15% of its oil
          • Territory disputes with 6 border countries
            • Russia is trying to find a connectionthe Lomosonov Ridge
          • Many animals there are sensitive to environmental disturbance and are already endangered
      • Importancedifferent players
        • governments
          • can make more renewable policies
          • often have a hand in infrastructure
          • State owned companies control 95% of oil and gas reserves
            • which mean they can be used to further their political agendas
        • Environmentalists
          • put pressure on government
        • Scientists/ Research and Development
          • Can make different options more viable
        • TNCS/Cartels
          • OPEC   control 78% of global oil reserves, and so can control prices and production
            • Many of the countries are in the Middle East so vulnerable to terrorism
          • GAZPROMcontrol 1/3 of global gas reserves,
    • 3. ENERGY SECURITY AND THE FUTURE
      • Future demand is uncertain
        • population growth
        • Economic growth
      • Resource availability is uncertain
        • Peak oil 2010-30
        • Peak gas 2020-40
        • Peak Coal 2040-60
      • The extent to which new technologies will be adopted is uncertain
        • Biofuels increased 2007-8 and then were blamed for pushing up food prices
      • Geopolitical threats
      • Solutions?
        • Diversification of energy resources
          • reduce dependancy on fossil fuels
          • increase renewable energy
        • increase access to energy in developing nations
        • reduce greenhouse gas emissions
          • carbon capture and storage
          • carbon credits
          • taxation
      • exploitation in environmentally sensitive regions
        • The Arctic contains over 3,000 species
        • The Amazon is home to 10% of the Worlds known biodiversity
          • would also open up the area to illegal poachers and loggers

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